Common Sense and the Attack on the IPCC

Thu, 2010-02-25 11:18Kevin Grandia
Kevin Grandia's picture

Common Sense and the Attack on the IPCC

When all logic leaves an argument, which is something that seems to happen on a daily basis in politics, it is good to step back and lay things out in black and white. Give some perspective to a situation to show just how ridiculous the situation has become.

The unprecedented attack on the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) has reached new heights with Republican Senator James Inhofe now calling for criminal investigations into the work of prominent climate change scientists.

Inhofe makes some very broad claims, based on a very narrow band of evidence, saying that, “the Minority Staff believes the emails and accompanying documents seriously compromise the IPCC-based “consensus” and its central conclusion that anthropogenic emissions are inexorably leading to environmental catastrophes.”

Inhofe is claiming that based on statements made in 3 emails, by a single person, he has enough evidence to now claim that decades of research by thousands of scientists is “seriously compromised.” Like I said, politics and logic rarely go had-in-hand.

To lay out in black and white, below I have compiled a list of the scientific references used in just two of the forty four chapters of the last IPCC report. There are thousands of papers, by thousands of scientists, over decades that make up this body of research.

Even if the so-called “climate gate” turned out to be the scandal Inhofe wants it to be, you could throw out that research and there would still remain thousands of papers, by thousands of scientists.

Take a quick look below at the list and you’ll see what I mean. That is, of course, if you’re willing to allow common sense back into the conversation on the subject of climate change.

Abbot, C.G., 1910: The solar constant of radiation. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, p. 319.

Ackerman, T., and G. Stokes, 2003: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Phys. Today, 56, 38–44.

Adkins, J.F., et al., 1998: Deep-sea coral evidence for rapid change in ventilation of the deep North Atlantic 15,400 years ago. Science, 280, 725–728.

Agassiz, L., 1837: Discours d’ouverture sur l’ancienne extension des glaciers. Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles, Neufchâtel.

Albrecht, B.A., et al., 1995: The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment – ASTEX. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 76, 889–904.

Alley, R.B., et al., 1993: Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527–529.

Arrhenius, S., 1896: On the infl uence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature on the ground, Philos. Mag., 41, 237–276. Aßmann, R., 1902: Über die Existenz eines wärmeren Luftstromes in der Höhe von 10 bis 15 km.

Sitzungsbericht der Königlich-Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Sitzung der physikalisch- mathematischen Klasse vom 1. Mai 1902, XXIV, 1–10.

Balachandran, N.K., and D. Rind, 1995: Modeling the effects of UV- variability and the QBO on the troposphere-stratosphere system. Part I: The middle atmosphere. J. Clim., 8, 2058–2079.

Barnett, T.P., 1995: Monte Carlo climate forecasting. J. Clim., 8, 1005– 1022.

Barnett, T.P., et al., 1999: Detection and attribution of recent climate change: A status report. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 2631–2660.

Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, Y.S. Korotkevich, and C. Lorius, 1987: Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature, 329, 408–414.

Battle, M., et al., 1996: Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from fi rn at South Pole. Nature, 383, 231–235.

Bender, M., et al., 1996: Variability in the O-2/N-2 ratio of southern hemisphere air, 1991-1994: Implications for the carbon cycle. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 9–21.

Berger, A., M.F. Loutre, and H. Gallée, 1998: Sensitivity of the LLN climate model to the astronomical and CO2 forcings over the last 200 kyr. Clim. Dyn., 14, 615–629.

Berner, W., H. Oeschger, and B. Stauffer, 1980: Information on the CO2 cycle from ice core studies. Radiocarbon, 22, 227–235.

Berson, A., and R. Süring, 1901: Ein ballonaufstieg bis 10 500m. Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, Heft 4, 117–119.

Birchfi eld, G.E., H. Wang, and M. Wyant, 1990: A bimodal climate response controlled by water vapor transport in a coupled ocean-atmosphere box model. Paleoceanography, 5, 383–395. Bjerknes, J., 1964: Atlantic air-sea interaction. Adv. Geophys., 10, 1–82.

Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacifi c. Mon. Weather Rev., 97, 163–172.

Blake, D.R., et al., 1982: Global increase in atmospheric methane concentrations between 1978 and 1980. Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 477– 480. Blunier, T., et al., 1998: Asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate change during the last glacial period. Nature, 394, 739–743.

Bond, G., et al., 1992: Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the glacial Northern Atlantic. Nature, 360, 245–249. Bony, S., K.-M. Lau, and Y.C. Sud, 1997: Sea surface temperature and large-scale circulation infl uences on tropical greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing. J. Clim., 10, 2055–2077.

Brasseur, G., 1993: The response of the middle atmosphere to long term and short term solar variability: A two dimensional model. J. Geophys. Res., 28, 23079–23090.

Brazdil, R., 1992: Reconstructions of past climate from historical sources in the Czech lands. In: Climatic Variations and Forcing Mechanisms of the Last 2000 Years [Jones, P.D., R.S. Bradley, and J. Jouzel (eds.)]. Springer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 649 pp. climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science, 278, 1582–1588.

Broecker, W.S., and G.H. Denton, 1989: The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganizations in glacial cycles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 2465– 2501.

Brohan P., et al., 2006: Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: A new data set from 1850. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006548.

Bryan, F., 1986: High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations. Nature, 323, 301–304. Bryan, K., 1969: A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean. J. Comput. Phys., 4, 347–376.

Bryan, K., and M.J. Spelman, 1985: The ocean’s response to a CO2-induced warming. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 679–688.

Bryan, K., S. Manabe, and R.C. Pacanowski, 1975: A global ocean- atmosphere climate model. Part II. The oceanic circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 30–46.

Bryson, R.A., and G.J. Dittberner, 1976: A non-equilibrium model of hemispheric mean surface temperature. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2094–2106.

Bryson, R.A., and G.J. Dittberner, 1977: Reply. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1821– 1824. Budyko, M.I., 1969: The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth. Tellus, 21, 611–619.

Buys Ballot, C.H.D., 1872: Suggestions on a Uniform System of Meteorological Observations. Publication No. 37, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Utrecht, 56 pp.

Callendar, G.S., 1938: The artifi cial production of carbon dioxide and its infl uence on temperature. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 64, 223–237.

Callendar, G.S., 1961: Temperature fl uctuations and trends over the Earth. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 1–12.

Cane, M.A., S.C. Dolan, and S.E. Zebiak, 1986: Experimental forecasts of the El Niño. Nature, 321, 827–832.

Cess, R.D., et al., 1989: Interpretation of cloud-climate feedback as produced by 14 atmospheric general circulation models. Science, 245, 513–516.

Chamberlain, T.C., 1906: On a possible reversal of deep-sea circulation and its infl uence on geologic climates. J. Geol., 14, 371–372.

Charlson, R.J., J. Langner, and H. Rodhe, 1990: Sulfur, aerosol, and climate. Nature, 22, 348. Charney, J.G., et al., 1979: Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientifi c Assessment. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 22 pp.

Clayton, H.H., 1927: World Weather Records. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, Volume 79, Washington, DC, 1196 pp.

Cortijo, E., et al., 1999: Changes in meridional temperature and salinity gradients in the North Atlantic Ocean (30 degrees-72 degrees N) during the last interglacial period. Paleoceanography, 14, 23–33.

Crease, J., 1962: Velocity measurements in the deep water of the western North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3173–3176. Croll, J., 1890: Climate and Time in Their Geological Relations: A Theory of Secular Changes of the Earth’s Climate, 2nd ed. Appleton, New York, 577 pp.

Cubasch, U., and R. Voss, 2000: The infl uence of total solar irradiance on climate. Space Sci. Rev., 94, 185–198.

Cubasch, U., et al., 1990: Processes and modelling. In: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientifi c Assessment [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 69–91.

Cubasch, U., et al., 1994: Monte Carlo climate change forecasts with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Clim. Dyn., 10, 1–19. Cubasch, U., et al., 1997: Simulation with an O-AGCM of the infl uence of variations of the solar constant on the global climate. Clim. Dyn., 13, 757–767.

Dansgaard, W., et al., 1984: North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. In: Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity [Hansen, J.E., and T. Takahashi (eds.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 288–298.

Dansgaard, W., et al., 1993: Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature, 364, 218–220.

Del Genio, A.D., M.-S. Yao, W. Kovari, and K.K.-W. Lo, 1996: A prognostic cloud water parameterization for global climate models. J. Clim., 9, 270–304, doi:10.1175/1520-0442.

Delmas, R.J., J.M. Ascencio, and M. Legrand, 1980: Polar ice evidence that atmospheric CO2 20,000 yr BP was 50% of present. Nature, 284, 155–157. deMenocal, P.B., 2001: Cultural responses during the late Holocene. Science, 292, 667–673.

Derwent, R., 1990: Trace Gases and Their Relative Contribution to the Greenhouse Effect. Report AERE- R13716, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxon, UK. 95 pp.

Dlugokencky, E.J., K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, and P.P. Tans, 1998: Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature, 393, 447–450.

Dove, H.W., 1852: Über die geographische Verbreitung gleichartiger Witterungserscheinungen (Über die nichtperiodischen Änderungen der Temperaturverteilung auf der Oberfl äche der Erde). Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, V Teil, 42, 3–4.

Dozier, J., S.R. Schneider, and D.F. McGinnis Jr., 1981: Effect of grain size and snowpack water equivalence on visible and near-infrared satellite observations of snow. Water Resour. Res., 17, 1213–1221.

Dunbar, R.B., and G.M. Wellington, 1981: Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation. Nature, 298, 453–455. Eddy, J.A., 1976: The Maunder Minimum. Science, 192, 1189–1202

Emiliani, C., 1955: Pleistocene temperatures. J. Geol., 63, 538–578. Emiliani, C., 1969: Interglacials, high sea levels and the control of Greenland ice by the precession of the equinoxes. Science, 166, 1503– 1504.

Etheridge, D.M., et al., 1996: Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and fi rn. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4115–4128.

Ewing, M., and W.L. Donn, 1956: A theory of ice ages. Science, 123, 1061–1065. Exner, F.M., 1913: Übermonatliche Witterungsanomalien auf der nördlichen Erdhälfte im Winter. Sitzungsberichte d. Kaiserl, Akad. der Wissenschaften, 122, 1165–1241.

Exner, F.M., 1924: Monatliche Luftdruck- und Temperaturanomalien auf der Erde. Sitzungsberichte d. Kaiserl, Akad. der Wissenschaften, 133, 307–408.

Fleming, J.R., 1998: Historical Perspectives on Climate Change. Oxford University Press, New York, 208pp. Flückiger, J., et al., 1999: Variations in atmospheric N2O concentration during abrupt climatic changes. Science, 285, 227–230.

Folland, C.K., and D.E. Parker, 1995: Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 121, 319–367.

Foukal, P.V., P.E. Mack, and J.E. Vernazza, 1977: The effect of sunspots and faculae on the solar constant. Astrophys. J., 215, 952-959.

Francey, R.J., and G.D. Farquhar, 1982: An explanation of C-13/C-12 variations in tree rings. Nature, 297, 28–31.

Fraser, P.J., M.A.K. Khalil, R.A. Rasmussen, and A.J. Crawford, 1981: Trends of atmospheric methane in the southern hemisphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 8, 1063–1066.

Fritts, H.C., 1962: An approach to dendroclimatology: screening by means of multiple regression techniques. J. Geophys. Res., 67, 1413–1420.

Gates, W.L., et al., 1996: Climate models – evaluation. In: Climate 1995: The Science of Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 229–284.

Gates, W.L., et al., 1999: An overview of the results of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP I). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 29–55.

Geerts, B., 1999: Trends in atmospheric science journals. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 639–652. Grootes, P.M., et al., 1993: Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature, 366, 552–554.

Ghil, M., 1989: Deceptively-simple models of climatic change. In: Climate and Geo-Sciences [Berger, A., J.-C. Duplessy, and S.H. Schneider (eds.)].

D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Netherlands and Hingham, MA, pp. 211–240. Graedel, T.E., and J.E. McRae, 1980: On the possible increase of atmospheric methane and carbon monoxide concentrations during the last decade. Geophys. Res. Lett., 7, 977–979.

Gwynne, P., 1975: The cooling world. Newsweek, April 28, 64. Haigh, J., 1996: The impact of solar variability on climate. Science, 272, 981–985.

Hansen, J., and S. Lebedeff, 1987: Global trends of measured surface air temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 13345–13372.

Hansen, J., A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, and M. Sato, 1992: Potential climate impact of Mount-Pinatubo eruption. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 215–218.

Hansen, J., et al., 1981: Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science, 213, 957–966.

Hansen, J., et al., 1984: Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms. In: Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity [Hansen, J.E., and T. Takahashi (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 29, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 130–163. Hansen, J., et al., 2001: A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23947–23963.

Harriss, R., K. Bartlett, S. Frolking, and P. Crill, 1993: Methane emissions from northern high-latitude wetlands. In: Biogeochemistry of Global Change [Oremland, R.S.(ed.)].

Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 449– 486. Hasselmann, K., 1997: Multi-pattern fi ngerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change. Clim. Dyn., 13, 601–612.

Hawking, S., 1988: A Brief History of Time. Bantam Press, New York, 224 pp. Hays, J.D., J. Imbrie, and N.J. Shackleton, 1976: Variations in the Earth’s orbit: Pace-maker of the ice ages. Science, 194, 1121–1132. Hegerl, G.C., et al., 1996: Detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climate change with an optimal fi ngerprint method. J. Clim., 9, 2281–2306.

Hegerl, G.C., et al., 1997: Multi-fi ngerprint detection and attribution of greenhouse-gas and aerosol-forced climate change. Clim. Dyn., 13, 613–634.

Hegerl, G.C., et al., 2000: Optimal detection and attribution of climate change: Sensitivity of results to climate model differences. Clim. Dyn., 16, 737–754.

Held, I.M., 2005: The gap between simulation and understanding in climate modelling. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1609–1614.

Herschel, W., 1801: Observations tending to investigate the nature of the sun, in order to fi nd the causes or symptoms of its variable emission of light and heat. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 91, 265-318. Hickey, J.R., et al., 1980: Initial solar irradiance determinations from Nimbus 7 cavity radiometer measurements. Science, 208, 281–283.

Hildebrandsson, H.H., 1897: Quelques recherches sur les centres d’action de l’atmosphère. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handlingar, 36 pp. Holton, J.R., 1992: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 3rd ed. Volume 48 of International Geophysics Series. Academic Press, San Diego, 511 pp. Hoyt, D.V., and K.H. Schatten, 1993: A discussion of plausible solar irradiance variations 1700-1992. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18895–18906 Hoyt, D.V., and K.H. Schatten, 1997: The Role of the Sun in Climate Change. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 279 pp. Hoyt, D.V., K.H. Schatten, and E. Nesmes-Ribes, 1994: The hundredth year of Rudolf Wolf’s death: Do we have the correct reconstruction of solar activity? Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2067–2070. Hurrell, J.W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676–679. Imbrie, J., and K.P. Imbrie, 1979: Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 224pp. Indermühle, A., et al., 1999: Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature, 398, 121–126. IPCC, 1990: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientifi c Assessment [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 365 pp. IPCC, 1992: Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientifi c Assessment [Houghton, J.T., B.A. Callander, and S.K. Varney (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 200 pp. IPCC, 1995: Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 339 pp. IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 572 pp. IPCC, 1999: Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere [Penner, J.E., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 373 pp. IPCC, 2001a: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp. IPCC, 2001b: Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 398 pp. Jacob, D.J., et al., 1997: Evaluation and intercomparison of global atmospheric transport models using 222Rn and other short-lived tracers. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5953–5970. Johnsen, S.J., et al., 1992: Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core. Nature, 359, 311–313. Jones, P.D., S.C.B. Raper, and T.M.L. Wigley, 1986a: Southern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984. J. Appl. Meteorol., 25, 1213–1230. Jones, P.D., et al., 1986b: Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 25, 161–179. Jones, P.D., et al., 1990: Assessment of urbanization effects in time series of surface air temperature over land. Nature, 347, 169–172. Jouzel, J., et al., 1987: Vostok ice core: a continuous isotope temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years). Nature, 329, 402– 408. Jouzel, J., et al., 1993: Extending the Vostok ice-core record of palaeoclimate to the penultimate glacial period. Nature, 364, 407–412. Karl, T.R., H.F. Diaz, and G. Kukla, 1988: Urbanization: Its detection and effect in the United States climate record. J. Clim., 1, 1099–1123. Keeling, C.D., 1961: The concentration and isotopic abundances of carbon dioxide in rural and marine air. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 24, 277– 298. Keeling, C.D., 1998: Rewards and penalties of monitoring the Earth. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ., 23, 25–82. Keeling, R.F., and S.R. Shertz, 1992: Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon-cycle. Nature, 358, 723–727. Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulation. Meteorological Monograph Series, Vol. 10, No. 32, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 84 pp. Khalil, M.A.K., and R.A. Rasmussen, 1988: Nitrous oxide: Trends and global mass balance over the last 3000 years. Ann. Glaciol., 10, 73–79. Kiehl, J., and K. Trenberth, 1997: Earth’s annual global mean energy budget. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 197–206. Kington, J., 1988: The Weather of the 1780s over Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 164 pp. Köppen, W., 1873: Über mehrjährige Perioden der Witterung, insbesondere über die 11-jährige Periode der Temperatur. Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, Bd VIII, 241–248 and 257–267. Köppen, W., 1880: Kleinere Mittheilungen (Conferenz des permanenten internationalen Meteorologen-Comitè’s). Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, Bd XV, 278–283. Köppen, W., 1881: Über mehrjährige Perioden der Witterung – III. Mehrjährige Änderungen der Temperatur 1841 bis 1875 in den Tropen der nördlichen und südlichen gemässigten Zone, an den Jahresmitteln. untersucht. Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, Bd XVI, 141–150. Kuhn, T.S., 1996: The Structure of Scientifi c Revolutions, 3rd edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 226 pp. Kvenvolden, K.A., 1988: Methane hydrate – a major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere? Chem. Geol., 71, 41–51. Kvenvolden, K.A., 1993: Gas hydrates – geological perspective and global change. Rev. Geophys., 31, 173–187. Labitzke, K., and H. van Loon, 1997: The signal of the 11-year sunspot cycle in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. Space Sci. Rev., 80, 393–410. Lacis, A.A., D.J. Wuebbles, and J.A. Logan, 1990: Radiative forcing of climate by changes in the vertical distribution of ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 9971–9981. Lamb, H.H., 1969: The new look of climatology. Nature, 223, 1209– 1215. Landsberg, H.E., and J.M. Mitchell Jr., 1961: Temperature fl uctuations and trends over the Earth. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 435–436. Langenfelds, R.L., et al., 1996: The Cape Grim Air Archive: The fi rst seventeen years. In: Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia, 1994-95 [Francey, R.J., A.L. Dick, and N. Derek (eds.)]. Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 53–70. Langley, S.P., 1876: Measurement of the direct effect of sun-spots on terrestrial climates. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 37, 5–11. Langley, S.P., 1884: Researches on the Solar Heat and its Absorption by the Earth’s Atmosphere. A Report of the Mount Whitney Expedition. Signal Service Professional Paper 15, Washington, DC. Lazier, J.R.N., 1995: The salinity decrease in the Labrador Sea over the past thirty years. In: Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales [Martinson, D.G., et al. (eds.)]. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 295–302. Le Treut, H., and Z.-X. Li, 1988: Using meteosat data to validate a prognostic cloud generation scheme. Atmos. Res., 21, 273–292. Le Treut, H., and Z.-X. Li, 1991: Sensitivity of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: feedback effects associated with the simulation of cloud optical properties. Clim. Dyn., 5, 175–187. Lean, J., 1997: The sun’s variable radiation and its relevance to Earth. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 35, 33–67. Lean, J., and D. Rind, 1998: Climate forcing by changing solar radiation. J. Clim., 11, 3069–3093. Lean, J., J. Beer, and R. Bradley, 1995: Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3195–3198. Levitus, S., J. Antonov, and T. Boyer, 1994: Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 m in the North Atlantic Ocean. Science, 266, 96–99. Lockyer, N., and W.J.S. Lockyer, 1902: On some phenomena which suggest a short period of solar and meteorological changes. Proc. R. Soc. London, 70, 500–504. London, J., 1957: A Study of Atmospheric Heat Balance. Final Report, Contract AF 19(122)-165, AFCRC-TR57-287, College of Engineering, New York University, New York, NY. 99 pp. Lorenz, E.N., 1963: Deterministic nonperiodic fl ow. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 130–141. Lorenz, E.N., 1967: On the Nature and Theory of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Publication No. 218, World Meteorological Association, Geneva, 161 pp. Lorenz, E.N., 1975: The physical bases of climate and climate modelling. In: Climate Predictability. GARP Publication Series 16, World Meteorological Association, Geneva, pp. 132–136. Lovelock, J.E., 1971: Atmospheric fl uorine compounds as indicators of air movements. Nature, 230, 379–381. Luterbacher, J., et al., 1999: Reconstruction of monthly NAO and EU indices back to AD 1675. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2745–2748. MacDonald, G.J., 1990: Role of methane clathrates in past and future climates. Clim. Change, 16, 247–281. Machida, T., et al., 1995: Increase in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 250 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2921– 2924. Madden, R.A., and V. Ramanathan, 1980: Detecting climate change due to increasing carbon dioxide. Science, 209, 763–768. Manabe, S., and K. Bryan, 1969: Climate calculations with a combined ocean-atmosphere model. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 786–789. Manabe, S., and R.T. Wetherald, 1975: The effects of doubling the CO2 concentration on the climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 3–15. Manabe, S., and R.J. Stouffer, 1988: Two stable equilibria of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Clim., 1, 841–866. Manabe, S., K. Bryan, and M.J. Spelman, 1975: A global ocean-atmosphere climate model. Part I. The atmospheric circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 3–29. Mann, M.E., R.S. Bradley, and M.K. Hughes, 1998: Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature, 392, 779–787. McAvaney, B.J., et al., 2001: Model evaluation. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 471– 521. McPhaden, M.J., et al., 1998: The Tropical Ocean – Global Atmosphere (TOGA) observing system: a decade of progress. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C7), 14169–14240. Mercer, J.H., 1968: Antarctic ice and Sangamon sea level. Int. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Symp., 79, 217–225. Mercer, J.H., 1978: West Antarctic ice sheet and CO2 greenhouse effect: a threat of disaster. Nature, 271, 321–325. Milankovitch, M., 1941: Kanon der Erdbestrahlungen und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem. Belgrade. English translation by Pantic, N., 1998: Canon of Insolation and the Ice Age Problem. Alven Global, 636 pp. Mitchell, J.M. Jr., 1963: On the world-wide pattern of secular temperature change. In: Changes of Climate. Proceedings of the Rome Symposium Organized by UNESCO and the World Meteorological Organization, 1961. Arid Zone Research Series No. 20, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 161– 181. Montzka, S. A., et al., 1999: Present and future trends in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting halogens. Nature, 398, 690–694. Moss, R., and S. Schneider, 2000: Uncertainties. In: Guidance Papers on the Cross Cutting Issues of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC [Pachauri, R., T. Taniguchi, and K. Tanaka (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, pp. 33-51. National Climatic Data Center, 2002: Data Documentation for Data Set 9645 World Weather Records – NCAR Surface (World Monthly Surface Station Climatology). U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, 17 pp. National Climatic Data Center, 2005: World Meteorological Organization, World Weather Records, 1991-2000, Volumes I-VI. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, CD- ROM format. Neftel, A., E. Moor, H. Oeschger, and B. Stauffer, 1985: Evidence from polar ice cores for the increase in atmospheric CO2 in the past 2 centuries. Nature, 315, 45–47. Neftel, A., et al., 1982: Ice core sample measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the Past 40,000 Yr. Nature, 295, 220–223. Newton, I., 1675: Letter to Robert Hooke, February 5, 1675. In: Andrews, R., 1993: The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations. Columbia University Press, New York, 1090 pp. Oeschger, H., et al., 1984: Late glacial climate history from ice cores. In: Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity [Hansen, J.E., and T. Takahashi (eds.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 299–306. Olson, J., et al., 1997: Results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change Photochemical Model Intercomparison (PhotoComp). J. Geophys. Res., 102(D5), 5979–5991. Oort, A.H., and T.H. Vonder Haar, 1976: On the observed annual cycle in the ocean-atmosphere heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 781–800. Parkinson, C.L., et al., 1987: Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive- Microwave Observations. NASA SP-489, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, 296 pp. Penner, J., R. Dickinson, and C. O’Neill, 1992: Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation budget. Science, 256, 1432– 1434. Peterson, T.C., et al., 1998: Homogeneity adjustments of in situ atmospheric climate data: A review. Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1493–1517. Peterson, T.C., et al., 1999: Global rural temperature trends. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 329–332. Petit, J.R., et al., 1999: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429–436. Pfi ster, C., 1992: Monthly temperature and precipitation in central Europe 1525-1979: quantifying documentary evidence on weather and its effects. In: Climatic Variations and Forcing Mechanisms of the Last 2000 Years. [Jones, P.D., R.S. Bradley, and J. Jouzel (eds.)]. Springer Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 649 pp. Pierrehumbert, R.T., 1995: Thermostats, radiator fi ns, and the local runaway greenhouse. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1784–1806. Popper, K.R., 1934: The Logic of Scientifi c Discovery. English edition: Routledge, London (1992), 544 pp. Prather, M., 1994: Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 801–804. Prinn, R.G., et al., 2000: A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17751–17792. Pyle, J., et al., 1996: Global Tracer Transport Models: Report of a Scientifi c Symposium, Bermuda, 10-13 Dec. 1990. WCRP CAS/JSC Report No. 24 (World Meteorological Organization, TD-No.770, Geneva, Switzerland), 186 pp. Quetelet, A., 1854: Rapport de la Conférence, tenue à Bruxelles, sur l’invitation du gouvernement des Etats-Unis d’Amérique, à l’effet de s’entendre sur un système uniform d’observations météorologiques à la mer. Annuaire de l’Observatoire Royal de Belgique, 21, 155–167. Ramanathan, V., 1975: Greenhouse effect due to chlorofl uorocarbons: Climatic implications. Science, 190, 50–52. Ramstein, G., et al., 1998: Cloud processes associated with past and future climate changes, Clim. Dyn., 14, 233–247. Randall, D.A., K.-M. Xu, R.C.J. Somerville, and S. Iacobellis, 1996: Single-column models and cloud ensemble models as links between observations and climate models. J. Clim., 9, 1683–1697. Rasch, P.J., 2000: A comparison of scavenging and deposition processes in global models: results from the WCRP Cambridge Workshop of 1995. Tellus, 52B, 1025–1056. Reid, G.C., 1991: Solar irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 2835–2844. Revelle, R., and H.E. Suess, 1957: Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO during the past decades. Tellus, 9, 18–27. Reynolds, R.W., and T.M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Clim., 7, 929– 948. Robock, A., 1982: The Russian surface temperature data set. J. Appl. Meteorol., 21, 1781–1785. Roeckner, E., U. Schlese, J. Biercamp, and P. Loewe, 1987: Cloud optical depth feedbacks and climate modelling. Nature, 329, 138–140. Rossow, W.B., and R.A. Schiffer, 1991: ISCCP cloud data products. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 72, 2–20. Rumford, B., Count, 1800: Essay VII. The propagation of heat in fl uids. In: Essays, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, A New Edition. T. Cadell, Jr., and W. Davies. London, pp. 197–386. Also in: Collected Works of Count Rumford, 1, The Nature of Heat [Brown, S.C.(ed.)]. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1968), pp. 117–285. Santer, B.D., J.S. Boyle, and D.E. Parker, 1996a: Human effect on global climate? Reply. Nature, 384, 524 . Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, T.P. Barnett, and E. Anyamba, 1996b: Detection of climate change, and attribution of causes. In: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 407–443. Santer, B.D., et al., 1995: Towards the detection and attribution of an anthropogenic effect on climate. Clim. Dyn., 12, 77–100. Santer, B.D., et al., 1996c: A search for human infl uences on the thermal structure of the atmosphere. Nature, 382, 39–46. Sausen, R., K. Barthel, and K. Hasselman, 1988: Coupled ocean-atmosphere models with fl ux correction. Clim. Dyn., 2, 145–163. Schellnhuber, H.J., et al. (eds.), 2004: Earth System Analysis for Sustainability. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 352 pp. Schlesinger, M.E., and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1987: Climate model simulations of the equilibrium climatic response to increased carbon-dioxide. Rev. Geophys., 25, 760–798. Schwabe, S.H., 1844: Sonnen-Beobachtungen im Jahre 1843. Astronomische Nachrichten, 21, 233. Sellers, W.D., 1969: A climate model based on the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. J. Appl. Meteorol., 8, 392–400. Senior, C.A., and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1993: Carbon dioxide and climate: the impact of cloud parameterization. J. Clim., 6, 393–418. Severinghaus, J.P., and E.J. Brook, 1999: Abrupt climate change at the end of the last glacial period inferred from trapped air in polar ice. Science, 286, 930–934. Shackleton, N., 1967: Oxygen isotope analyses and Pleistocene temperatures reassessed. Nature, 215, 15–17. Shackleton, N.J., M.A. Hall, and E. Vincent, 2000: Phase relationships between millennial-scale events 64,000–24,000 years ago. Paleoceanography, 15, 565–569. Slingo, J., 1987: The development and verifi cation of a cloud prediction scheme for the ECMWF model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 113, 899–927. Somerville, R.C.J., 2000: Using single-column models to improve cloud-radiation parameterizations. In: General Circulation Model Development: Past, Present and Future [Randall, D.A.(ed.)]. Academic Press, San Diego and London, pp. 641–657. Stanhill, G., 2001: The growth of climate change science: A scientometric study. Clim. Change, 48, 515–524. Steele, L.P., et al., 1996: Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim air samples analysed by gas chromatography. In: Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia, 1994-95 [Francey, R.J., A.L. Dick, and N. Derek (eds.)]. Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 107–110. Stephenson, D.B., H. Wanner, S. Brönnimann, and J. Luterbacher, 2003: The history of scientifi c research on the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Signifi cance and Environmental Impact [Hurrell, J.W., et al. (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 134, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi:10.1029/134GM02. Stocker, T.F., 1998: The seesaw effect. Science, 282, 61–62. Stommel, H., 1961: Thermohaline convection with two stable regimes of fl ow. Tellus, 13, 224–230. Stott, P.A., et al., 2000: External control of 20th century temperature by natural and anthropogenic forcings. Science, 290, 2133–2137. Stouffer, R.J., S. Manabe, and K.Y. Vinnikov, 1994: Model assessment of the role of natural variability in recent global warming. Nature, 367, 634–636. Stowe, L., et al., 1988: Nimbus-7 global cloud climatology. Part I: Algorithms and validation. J. Clim., 1, 445–470. Sundqvist, H., 1978: A parametrization scheme for non-convective condensation including prediction of cloud water content. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 104, 677–690. Susskind, J., D. Reuter, and M.T. Chahine, 1987: Clouds fi elds retrieved from HIRS/MSU data. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4035–4050. Sutton, R., and M. Allen, 1997: Decadal predictability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature and climate. Nature, 388, 563–567. Taylor, K.E., 2001: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7183–7192. Teisserenc de Bort, L.P., 1902: Variations de la température de l’air libre dans la zona comprise entre 8km et 13km d’altitude. Comptes Rendus de l’Acad. Sci. Paris, 134, 987–989. Tett, S.F.B., et al., 1999: Causes of twentieth century temperature change. Nature, 399, 569–572. Trenberth, K. (ed.), 1993: Climate System Modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 818 pp. Tselioudis, G., and W.B. Rossow, 1994: Global, multiyear variations of optical thickness with temperature in low and cirrus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2211–2214, doi:10.1029/94GL02004. Twomey, S., 1977: Infl uence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149–1152. Tyndall, J., 1861: On the absorption and radiation of heat by gases and vapours, and on the physical connection, Philos. Mag., 22, 277–302. Van den Dool, H.M., H.J. Krijnen, and C.J.E. Schuurmans, 1978: Average winter temperatures at de Bilt (the Netherlands): 1634-1977. Clim. Change, 1, 319–330. Van Loon, H., and J. C. Rogers, 1978: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part 1: General descriptions. Mon. Weather Rev., 106, 296–310. Van Loon, H., and K. Labitzke, 2000: The infl uence of the 11-year solar cycle on the stratosphere below 30 km: A review. Space Sci. Rev., 94, 259–278. Vonder Haar, T.H., and V.E. Suomi, 1971: Measurements of the Earth’s radiation budget from satellites during a fi ve-year period. Part 1: Extended time and space means. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 305–314. Walker, G.T., 1924: Correlation in seasonal variation of weather. IX Mem. Ind. Met. Dept., 25, 275–332. Walker, G.T., 1928: World weather: III. Mem. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 2, 97– 106. Wallace, J.M., and D.S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height fi eld during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 784–812. Wallis, I., and I. Beale, 1669: Some observations concerning the baroscope and thermoscope, made and communicated by Doctor I. Wallis at Oxford, and Dr. I Beale at Yeovil in Somerset, deliver’d here according to the several dates, when they were imparted. Dr. Beale in those letters of his dated Decemb.18. Decemb. 29. 1669. and Januar. 3. 1670. Philosophical Transactions (1665-1678), 4, 1113–1120. Wang, W. C., et al., 1976: Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases. Science, 194, 685–690. Wanner, H., et al., 1995. Wintertime European circulation patterns during the late maunder minimum cooling period (1675-1704). Theor. Appl. Climatol., 51, 167–175. Warren, B.A., 1981: Deep circulation of the World Ocean. In: Evolution of Physical Oceanography [Warren, B.A., and C. Wunsch (eds.)]. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 6–41. Warren, S.G., et al., 1986: Global Distribution of Total Cloud Cover and Cloud Type Amounts Over Land. DOE/ER/60085-H1, NCAR/TN-273 + STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Warren, S.G., et al., 1988: Global Distribution of Total Cloud Cover and Cloud Type Amounts Over the Ocean. DOE/ER-0406, NCAR/FN-317 + STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Weart, S., 2003: The Discovery of Global Warming. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 240 pp. Weber, J.N., and P.M.J. Woodhead, 1972: Temperature dependence of oxygen-18 concentration in reef coral carbonates. J. Geophys. Res., 77, 463–473. Webster, P.J., and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA-COARE: The coupled ocean- atmosphere response experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 73, 1377– 1416. Weiss, R.F., 1981: The temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrous oxide. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 7185–7195. Wetherald, R.T., and S. Manabe, 1975: The effects of changing solar constant on the climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 2044–2059. Wigley, T.M.L., and S.C.B. Raper, 1990: Natural variability of the climate system and detection of the greenhouse effect. Nature, 344, 324–327. Willett, H.C., 1950: Temperature trends of the past century. In: Centenary Proceedings of the Royal Meteorological Society. Royal Meteorological Society, London. pp. 195–206. Willson, R.C., C.H. Duncan, and J. Geist, 1980: Direct measurements of solar luminosity variation. Science, 207, 177–179. Worley, S.J., et al., 2005: ICOADS release 2.1 data and products. Int. J. Climatol., 25, 823–842. Woronko, S.F., 1977: Comments on “a non-equilibrium model of hemispheric mean surface temperature”. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1820–1821. Wunsch, C., 1978: The North Atlantic general circulation west of 50°W determined by inverse methods. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 16, 583– 620. Wyrtki, K., 1975: El Niño – the dynamic response of the equatorial Pacifi c Ocean to atmospheric forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 572–584. Zebiak, S.E., and M.A. Cane, 1987: A model El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 2262–2278. Zhu, K., 1973: A preliminary study on the climate changes since the last 5000 years in China. Science in China, 2, 168–189. Abdul-Razzak, H., and S.J. Ghan, 2002: A parametrization of aerosol activation: 3. Sectional representation. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D3), 4026, doi:10.1029/2001JD000483. Abel, S.J., E.J. Highwood, J.M. Haywood, and M.A. Stringer, 2005: The direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol over southern Africa. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 1165–1211. Abel, S.J., et al., 2003: Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fi re in southern Africa. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1783, doi:10.1029/2003GL017342. Ackerman, A.S, M.P. Kirkpatrick, D.E. Stevens, and O.B. Toon, 2004: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432, 1014–1017. Ackerman, A.S., et al., 2000a: Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot. Science, 288, 1042–1047. Ackerman, A.S., et al., 2000b: Effects of aerosols on cloud albedo: evaluation of Twomey’s parametrization of cloud susceptibility using measurements of ship tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2684–2695. Adams, P.J. and J.H. Seinfeld, 2002: Predicting global aerosol size distributions in general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 4370, doi:10.1029/2001JD001010. Adams, P.J., et al., 2001: General circulation model assessment of direct radiative forcing by the sulfate-nitrate-ammonium-water inorganic aerosol system. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D1), 1097–1112. Albrecht, B., 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics and fractional cloudiness. Science, 245, 1227–1230. Allan, W., et al., 2005: Interannual variation of 13C in tropospheric methane: Implications for a possible atomic chlorine sink in the marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11306, doi:10.1029/2004JD005650. Ammann, C.M., G.A. Meehl, W.M. Washington, and C.S. Zender, 2003: A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), 1657, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL016875. Anderson, T.L., et al., 2003: Climate forcing by aerosols: a hazy picture. Science, 300, 1103–1104. Anderson, T.L., et al., 2005a. Testing the MODIS satellite retrieval of aerosol fi ne-mode fraction. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18204, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD005978. Anderson, T.L., et al., 2005b: An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1795–1809. Andreae, M.O., and P. Merlet, 2001: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(4), 955–966, doi:10.1029/2000GB001382. Andreae, M.O., et al., 2004: Atmospheric science: smoking rain clouds over the Amazon. Science, 303(5662), 1337–1341. Andres, R.J., G. Marland, T. Boden, and S. Bischof, 2000: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751- 1991, and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution. In: The Carbon Cycle [Wigley, T.M.L., and D.S. Schimel (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 53–62. Andronova, N.G., et al., 1999: Radiative forcing by volcanic aerosols from 1850 to 1994. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D14), 16807–16826. Antuña, J.C., et al., 2003: Spatial and temporal variability of the stratospheric aerosol cloud produced by the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4624, doi:10.1029/2003JD003722. Asano, S., et al., 2002: Two case studies of winter continental-type water and mixed-phased stratocumuli over the sea. II: Absorption of solar radiation. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4570, doi:10.1029/2001JD001108. Baliunas, S., and R. Jastrow, 1990: Evidence for long-term brightness changes of solar-type stars. Nature, 348, 520–522. Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp. 239–267. Bange, H.W., S. Rapsomanikis, and M.O. Andreae, 1996: Nitrous oxide in coastal waters. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(1), 197–207. Baran, A.J., and J.S. Foot, 1994: A new application of the operational sounder HIRS in determining a climatology of sulfuric acid aerosol from the Pinatubo eruption. J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), 25673–25679. Barnes, J.E., and D.J. Hoffman, 1997: Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(15), 1923–1926. Barnston, A.G., and P.T. Schickedanz, 1984: The effect of irrigation on warm season precipitation in the southern Great Plains. J. Appl. Meteorol., 23, 865–888. Bartholome, E., and A.S. Belward, 2005: GLC2000: a new approach to global land cover mapping from Earth observation data. Int. J. Remote Sens., 26, 1959–1977. Bates, T.S., et al., 2006: Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacifi c, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modelling. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 175–362. Bauer, S.E., and D. Koch, 2005: Impact of heterogeneous sulfate formation at mineral dust surfaces on aerosol loads and radiative forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17202, doi:10.1029/2005JD005870. Bauman, J.J., P.B. Russell, M.A. Geller, and P. Hamill, 2003: A stratospheric aerosol climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements: 2. Results and comparisons, 1984-1999. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 4383, doi:10.1029/2002JD002993. Beheng, K.D., 1994: A parametrization of warm cloud microphysical conversion process. Atmos. Res., 33, 193–206. Bekki, S., K. Law, and J. Pyle, 1994: Effect of ozone depletion on atmospheric CH4 and CO concentrations. Nature, 371, 595–597. Bellouin, N., O. Boucher, D. Tanré, and O. Dubovik, 2003: Aerosol absorption over the clear-sky oceans deduced from POLDER-1 and AERONET observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(14), 1748, doi:10.1029/2003GL017121. Bellouin, N., O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M.S. Reddy, 2005: Global estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements. Nature, 438, 1138–1141. Benestad, R.E., 2005: A review of the solar cycle length estimates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15714, doi:10.1029/2005GL023621. Bergamaschi, P., et al., 2005: Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2431–2460. Bergstrom, R.W., P. Pilewskie, B. Schmid, and P.B. Russell, 2003: Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8474, doi:10.1029/2002JD002435. Berntsen, T.K., et al., 2005: Climate response to regional emissions of ozone precursors; sensitivities and warming potentials. Tellus, 4B, 283–304. Berntsen, T.K., et al., 2006: Abatement of greenhouse gases: does location matter? Clim. Change, 74, 377–411. Berry, E.X., 1967: Cloud droplet growth by collection. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 688–701. Betts, R.A., 2000: Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo. Nature, 408(6809), 187–189. Betts, R.A., 2001: Biogeophysical impacts of land use on present-day climate: near-surface temperature change and radiative forcing. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 2(1–4), doi:1006/asle.2001.0023. Betts, R.A., and M.J. Best, 2004: Relative impact of radiative forcing, landscape effects and local heat sources on simulated climate change in urban areas. BETWIXT Technical Briefi ng Note No. 6, Met Offi ce, Exeter, UK, 15 pp. Betts, R.A., P.M. Cox, S.E. Lee, and F.I. Woodward, 1997: Contrasting physiological and structural vegetation feedbacks in climate change simulations. Nature, 387, 796–799. Betts, R.A., P.D. Falloon, K.K. Goldewijk, and N. Ramankutty, 2007: Biogeophysical effects of land use on climate: model simulations of radiative forcing and large-scale temperature change. Agric. For. Meteorol., 142, 216-233. Betts, R.A., et al., 2004: The role of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonian precipitation decrease and forest dieback under global climate warming. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78, 157–175. Bigler, M., et al., 2002: Sulphate record from a northeast Greenland ice core over the last 1200 years based on continuous fl ow analysis. Ann. Glaciol., 35, 250–256. Bingen, C., D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, 2004: A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000: 2. Reference data. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511. Blake, D., and F. Rowland, 1988: Continuing worldwide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978 to 1987. Science, 239, 1129–1131. Blake, N.J., et al., 2001: Large-scale latitudinal and vertical distributions of NMHCs and selected halocarbons in the troposphere over the Pacifi c Ocean during the March-April 1999 Pacifi c Exploratory Mission (PEM- Tropics B). J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32627–32644. Bluth, G.J.S., W.I. Rose, I.E. Sprod, and A.J. Krueger, 1997: Stratospheric loading of sulfur from explosive volcanic eruptions. J. Geol., 105, 671– 683. Bluth, G.J.S., et al., 1992: Global tracking of the SO2 clouds from the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(2), 151–154, doi:10.1029/91GL02792. Boberg, F., and H. Lundstedt, 2002: Solar wind variations related to fl uctuations of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(15), doi:10.1029/2002GL014903. Boer, G.J., and B. Yu, 2003a: Climate sensitivity and climate state. Clim. Dyn., 21, 167–176. Boer, G.J., and B. Yu, 2003b: Climate sensitivity and response. Clim. Dyn., 20, 415–429. Bond, T.C., 2001: Spectral dependence of visible light absorption by carbonaceous particles emitted from coal combustion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21), 4075–4078. Bond, T.C., and H. Sun, 2005: Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming? Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 5921–5926. Bond, T.C., et al., 1999: Light absorption by primary particle emissions from a lignite burning plant. Environ. Sci.Technol., 33, 3887–3891. Bond, T.C., et al., 2004: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697. Born, M., H. Dorr, and I. Levin, 1990: Methane consumption in aerated soils of the temperate zone. Tellus , 42B, 2–8. Bortz, S.E., and M.J. Prather, 2006: Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05305, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD006512. Boucher, O., 1999: Air traffi c may increase cirrus cloudiness. Nature, 397, 30–31. Boucher, O., and U. Lohmann, 1995: The sulfate-CCN-cloud albedo effect: a sensitivity study using two general circulation models. Tellus, 47B, 281–300. Boucher, O., and D. Tanré, 2000: Estimation of the aerosol perturbation to the Earth’s radiative budget over oceans using POLDER satellite aerosol retrievals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(8), 1103–1106. Boucher, O., and J. Haywood, 2001: On summing the components of radiative forcing of climate change. Clim. Dyn., 18, 297–302. Boucher, O., and M. Pham, 2002: History of sulfate aerosol radiative forcings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(9), 22–25. Boucher, O., H. Le Treut, and M.B. Baker, 1995: Precipitation and radiation modeling in a general circulation model: introduction of cloud microphysical processes. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D8), 16395–16414. Boucher, O., G. Myhre, and A. Myhre, 2004: Direct human infl uence of irrigation on atmospheric water vapour and climate. Clim. Dyn., 22, 597–604. Bounoua, L., et al., 2002: Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Clim. Change, 52, 29–64. Bousquet, P., et al., 2005: Two decades of OH variability as inferred by an inversion of atmospheric transport and chemistry of methyl chloroform. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1679–1731. Bower, K.N., et al., 1994: A parametrization of warm clouds for use in atmospheric general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2722–2732. BP, 2006: Quantifying Energy: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2006. BP p.l.c., London, 45 pp., http://www.bp.com/productlanding. do?categoryId=6842&contentId=7021390. Bradford, D.F., 2001: Global change: time, money and tradeoffs. Nature, 410, 649–650, doi:10.1038/35070707. Brasseur, G., and C. Granier, 1992: Mount Pinatubo aerosols, chlorofl uorocarbons and ozone depletion. Science, 257, 1239–1242. Brenguier, J.L., H. Pawlowska, and L. Schuller, 2003: Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parametrization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 8632, doi:10.1029/2002JD002682. Brenguier, J.L., et al., 2000a: Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 803–821. Brenguier, J.L., et al., 2000b: An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment. Tellus, 52B, 815–827. Bréon, F-M., and M. Doutriaux-Boucher, 2005: A comparison of cloud droplet radii measured from space. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens., 43, 1796–1805, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.852838. Bréon, F.-M., D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, 2002: Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite. Science, 295, 834–838. Broccoli, A.J., et al., 2003: Twentieth-century temperature and precipitation trends in ensemble climate simulations including natural and anthropogenic forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4798, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD003812. Brock, C.A., et al., 2004: Particle characteristics following cloud-modifi ed transport from Asia to North America. J. Geophys. Res., 109, 1–17. Brovkin, V.M., et al., 2004. Role of land cover changes for atmospheric CO2 increase and climate change during the last 150 years. Global Change Biol., 10, 1253–1266. Brovkin, V.M., et al., 2006: Biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes simulated by six earth system models of intermediate complexity. Clim. Dyn., 26(6), 587–600. Cakmur, R.V., et al., 2006: Constraining the magnitude of the global dust cycle by minimizing the difference between a model and observations. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005791. Campbell, J.R., et al., 2003: Micropulse Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 dry season experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8497, doi:10.1029/2002JD002563. Carslaw, K.S., R.G. Harrison, and J. Kirkby, 2002: Atmospheric science: Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate. Science, 298, 1732–1737. Chapman, G.A., A.M. Cookson, and J.J. Dobias, 1996: Variations in total solar irradiance during solar cycle 22. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 13541– 13548. Chase, T.N., et al., 2000: Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. Clim. Dyn., 16, 93–105. Chen, Y., and J.E. Penner, 2005: Uncertainty analysis of the fi rst indirect aerosol effect. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2935–2948. Chen, Y.-H., and R.G. Prinn, 2005: Atmospheric modelling of high- and low-frequency methane observations: Importance of interannually varying transport. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10303, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD005542. Chen, Y.-H., and R.G. Prinn, 2006: Estimation of atmospheric methane emissions between 1996-2001 using a 3D global chemical transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006058. Chiapello, I., C. Moulin, and J.M. Prospero, 2005: Understanding the long- term variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic as recorded in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical thickness. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18S10, doi:10.1029/2004JD005132. Chipperfi eld, M.P., W.J. Randel, G.E. Bodeker, and P. Johnston, 2003: Global ozone: past and future. In: Scientifi c Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002 [Ennis, C.A.(ed.)]. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 4.1–4.90. Chou, M.-D., P.-K. Chan, and M. Wang, 2002: Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 748–757. Christiansen, B., 1999: Radiative forcing and climate sensitivity: the ozone experience. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 3011–3035. Christopher, S.A., and J. Zhang, 2004: Cloud-free shortwave aerosol radiative effect over oceans: strategies for identifying anthropogenic forcing from Terra satellite measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18101, doi:10.1029/2004GL020510. Christopher, S.A., J. Zhang, Y.J. Kaufman, and L. Remer, 2006: Satellite- based assessment of the top of the atmosphere anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing over cloud-free oceans. Geophys Res. Lett., 111, L15816, doi:10.1029/2005GL025535. Chu, D.A., et al., 2002: Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(12), doi:10.1029/2001GL013205. Chu, D.A., et al., 2005: Evaluation of aerosol properties over ocean from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during ACE- Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07308, doi:10.1029/2004JD005208. Chuang, C.C., and J.E. Penner, 1995: Effects of anthropogenic sulfate on cloud drop nucleation and optical properties. Tellus, 47B, 566–577. Chuang, C.C., et al., 1997: An assessment of the radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D3), 3761–3778. Chuang, C.C., et al., 2002: Cloud susceptibility and the fi rst aerosol indirect forcing: Sensitivity to black carbon and aerosol concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4564, doi:10.1029/2000JD000215. Chuang, P.Y., 2003: Measurement of the timescale of hygroscopic growth for atmospheric aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 5–13. Chung, C.E., V. Ramanathan, D. Kim, and I.A. Podgorny, 2005: Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived from satellite and ground- based observations. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24207, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD006356. Chung, S.H., and J.H. Seinfeld, 2002: Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD001397. Chylek, P., and J. Wong, 1995: Effect of absorbing aerosols on global radiation budget. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 929–931. Chylek, P., B. Henderson, and M. Mishchenko, 2003: Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4764, doi:10.1029/2003JD004044. Clarke, A.D., et al., 2004: Size distributions and mixtures of dust and black carbon aerosol in Asian outfl ow: Physiochemistry and optical properties. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S09, doi:10.1029/2003JD004378. Claquin, T., M. Schulz, and Y. Balkanski, 1999: Modeling the mineralogy of atmospheric dust. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D18), 22243–22256. Coen, M.C., et al., 2004: Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and fi rst climatology analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2465–2480. Collins, W.D., et al., 2001: Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D7), 7313–7336. Collins, W.D., et al., 2006: Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the IPCC AR4. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14317, doi:10.1029/2005JD006713. Collins, W.J., R.G. Derwent, C.E. Johnson, and D.S. Stevenson, 2002: The oxidation of organic compounds in the troposphere and their global warming potentials. Clim. Change, 52, 453–479. Considine, D.B., J.E. Rosenfi eld, and E.L. Fleming, 2001: An interactive model study of the infl uence of the Mount Pinatubo aerosol on stratospheric methane and water trends. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D21), 27711–27727. Conway, T.J., et al., 1994: Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL sampling network. J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 22831–22855. Cook, J., and E.J. Highwood, 2004: Climate response to tropospheric absorbing aerosols in an intermediate general-circulation model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 175–191. Cooke, W.F., V. Ramaswamy, and P. Kasibhatla, 2002: A general circulation model study of the global carbonaceous aerosol distribution. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), doi:10.1029/2001JD001274. Cooke, W.F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, and J. Feichter, 1999: Construction of a 1° x 1° fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D18), 22137–22162. Coughlin, K., and K.K. Tung, 2004: Eleven-year solar cycle signal throughout the lower atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21105, doi:10.1029/2004JD004873. Cox, P.M., et al., 1999: The impact of new land surface physics on the GCM simulation of climate and climate sensitivity. Clim. Dyn. 15, 183–203. Cramer, W., et al., 2001: Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: Results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biol., 7, 357–373. Crooks, S.A., and L.J. Gray, 2005: Characterization of the 11-year solar signal using a multiple regression analysis of the ERA-40 dataset. J. Clim., 18, 996–1015. Crutzen, P.J., 2004: New directions: the growing urban heat and pollution “island” effect - impact on chemistry and climate. Atmos. Environ., 38, 3539–3540. Cunnold, D.M., et al., 2002: In situ measurements of atmospheric methane at GAGE/AGAGE sites during 1985-2000 and resulting source inferences. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), doi:10.1029/2001JD001226. Cunnold, D.M., et al., 2004: Comment on “Enhanced upper stratospheric ozone: Sign of recovery or solar cycle effect?” by W. Steinbrecht et al. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14305, doi:10.1029/2004JD004826. Cziczo, D.J., D.M. Murphy, P.K. Hudson, and D.S. Thompson, 2004: Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue from CRYSTAL-FACE. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04201, doi:10.1029/2003JD004032. Dameris, M., et al., 2005: Long-term changes and variability in a transient simulation with a chemistry-climate model employing realistic forcing. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 2121–2145. Daniel, J.S., S. Solomon, and D.L. Albritton, 1995: On the evaluation of halocarbon radiative forcing and global warming potentials. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D1), 1271–1286, doi:10.1029/94JD02516. de Ridder, K., and H. Gallée, 1998: Land surface-induced regional climate change in southern Israel. J. Appl. Meteorol., 37, 1470–1485. Decesari, S., M.C. Facchini, S. Fuzzi, and E. Tagliavini, 2000: Characterization of water-soluble organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol: a new approach. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D1), 1481–1489. Decesari, S., et al., 2001: Chemical features and seasonal variation of fi ne aerosol water-soluble organic compounds in the Po Valley, Italy. Atmos. Environ., 35, 3691–3699. Del Genio, A.D., M.S. Yao, and K.-W. Lo, 1996: A prognostic cloud water parametrization for global climate models. J. Clim., 9, 270–304. Delworth, T.L., V. Ramaswamy, and G.L. Stenchikov, 2005: The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24709, doi:10.1029/2005GL024457. den Elzen, M., et al., 2005. Analysing countries’ contribution to climate change: Scientifi c and policy-related choices. Environ. Sci. Technol., 8(6), 614–636. Dentener, F., et al., 2006: Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 - prescribed data-sets for AeroCom. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 2703–2763. Derwent, R.G., W.J. Collins, C.E. Johnson, and D.S. Stevenson, 2001: Transient behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D CTM and their indirect greenhouse effects. Clim. Change, 49, 463– 487. Deshler, T., et al., 2003: Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41N), using balloon-borne instruments. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4167, doi:10.1029/2002JD002514. Deuzé, J.L., et al., 2000: Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15329–15346. Deuzé, J.L., et al., 2001: Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 4913–4926. Dewitte, S., D. Crommelynck, S. Mekaoui, and A. Joukoff, 2005: Measurement and uncertainty of the long-term total solar irradiance trend. Sol. Phys., 224, 209–216. Diab, R.D., et al., 2004: Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20301, doi:10.1029/2004JD004793. Dlugokencky, E.J., K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, and P.P. Tans, 1998: Continuing decline in the growth rate of atmospheric methane. Nature, 393, 447–450. Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 1996: Changes in CH4 and CO growth rates after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and their link with changes in tropical tropospheric UV fl ux. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(20), 2761–2764. Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 2001: Measurements of an anomalous global methane increase during 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(3), 499–502. Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 2003: Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state? Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(19), doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018126. Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 2005: Conversion of NOAA CMDL atmospheric dry air CH4 mole fractions to a gravimetrically prepared standard scale. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18306, doi:10.1029/2005JD006035. Döll, P., 2002: Impact of climate change and variability on irrigation requirements: a global perspective. Clim. Change, 54, 269–293. Douglass, A., M. Schoeberl, R. Rood, and S. Pawson, 2003: Evaluation of transport in the lower tropical stratosphere in a global chemistry and transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 4259, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002696. Douglass, D.H., and B.D. Clader, 2002: Climate sensitivity of the Earth to solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(16), 33–36. Dubovik, O., and M.D. King, 2000: A fl exible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20673–20696. Dubovik, O., et al., 1998: Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 31903–31923. Dubovik, O., et al., 2000: Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 9791–9806. Dubovik, O., et al., 2002: Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 590–608. Dufresne, L.-L., et al., 2005: Contrasts in the effects on climate of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols between the 20th and the 21st century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21703, doi:10.1029/2005GL023619. Duncan, B.N., et al., 2003: Indonesian wildfi res of 1997: Impact on tropospheric chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 4458, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD003195. Dusek, U., et al., 2006: Size matters more than chemistry for cloud- nucleating ability of aerosol particles. Science, 312, 1375–1378. Dziembowski, W.A., P.R. Goode, and J. Schou, 2001: Does the sun shrink with increasing magnetic activity? Astrophys. J., 553, 897–904. Eagan, R., P.V. Hobbs, and L. Radke, 1974: Measurements of CCN and cloud droplet size distributions in the vicinity of forest fi res. J. Appl. Meteorol., 13, 537–553. Easter, R., et al., 2004: MIRAGE: Model description and evaluation of aerosols and trace gases. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D20210, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD004571. Eatough, D.J., et al., 2003: Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8479, doi:10.1029/2002JD002296. Eck, T.F., et al., 2003: Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8477, doi:10.1029/2002JD002321. Edwards, D.P., et al., 2004: Observations of carbon monoxide and aerosols from the Terra satellite: Northern Hemisphere variability. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24202, doi:10.1029/2004JD004727. Ehhalt, D.H., 1999: Gas phase chemistry of the troposphere. In: Global Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry, Vol. 6 [Baumgaertel, H., W. Gruenbein, and F. Hensel (eds.)]. Springer Verlag, Darmstadt, pp. 21– 110. EPA, 2003: National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 2003 Special Studies Edition. Publication No. EPA 454/R-03-005, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 190pp, http://www. epa.gov/air/airtrends/aqtrnd03/ Erlick, C., L.M. Russell, and V. Ramaswamy, 2001: A microphysics-based investigation of the radiative effects of aerosol-cloud interactions for two MAST Experiment case studies. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D1), 1249– 1269. Ervens, B., G. Feingold, and S.M. Kreidenweis, 2005: The infl uence of water-soluble organic carbon on cloud drop number concentration. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18211, doi:10.1029/2004JD005634. Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds, 1998: Atmospheric methane between 1000 A.D. and present: Evidence of anthropogenic emissions and climatic variability. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D13), 15979–15993. Etheridge, D.M., et al., 1996: Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and fi rn. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D2), 4115–4128. Facchini, M.C., M. Mircea, S. Fuzzi, and R.J. Charlson, 1999: Cloud albedo enhancement by surface-active organic solutes in growing droplets. Nature, 401, 257–259. Facchini, M.C., et al., 2000: Surface tension of atmospheric wet aerosol and cloud/fog droplets in relation to their organic carbon content and chemical composition. Atmos. Environ., 34, 4853–4857. Feichter, J., E. Roeckner, U. Lohmann, and B. Liepert, 2004: Nonlinear aspects of the climate response to greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing. J. Clim., 17, 2384–2398. Feingold, G., 2003: Modelling of the fi rst indirect effect: Analysis of measurement requirements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(19), 1997, doi:10.1029/2003GL017967. Feingold, G., and P.Y. Chuang, 2002: Analysis of infl uence of fi lm-forming compounds on droplet growth: Implications for cloud microphysical processes and climate. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2006–2018. Feingold, G., R. Boers, B. Stevens, and W.R. Cotton, 1997: A modelling study of the effect of drizzle on cloud optical depth and susceptibility. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D12), 13527–13534. Feingold, G., W.L. Eberhard, D.E. Veron, and M. Previdi, 2003: First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(6), 1287, doi:10.1029/2002GL016633. Feng, Y., and J. Penner. 2007: Global modeling of nitrate and ammonium: Interaction of aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 112(D01304), doi:10.1029/2005JD006404. Ferretti, D.F., D.C. Lowe, R.J. Martin, and G.W. Brailsford, 2000: A new GC-IRMS technique for high precision, N2O-free analysis of δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO2 from small air samples. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D5), 6709–6718. Field, C.B., R.B. Jackson, and H.A. Mooney, 1995: Stomatal responses to increased CO2: implications from the plant to the global scale. Plant Cell Environ., 18, 1214–1225. Fioletov, V.E., et al., 2002: Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated from ground-based and satellite measurements: 1964-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D22), 4647, doi:10.1029/2001JD001350. Formenti, P., et al., 2003: Inorganic and carbonaceous aerosols during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) experiment: Chemical characteristics, physical properties, and emission data or smoke from African biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8488, doi:10.1029/2002JD002408. Forster, P.M.F., and K.P. Shine, 1999: Stratospheric water vapour changes as a possible contributor to observed stratospheric cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(21), 3309–3312. Forster, P.M.F., and K. Tourpali, 2001: Effect of tropopause height changes on the calculation of ozone trends and their radiative forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D11), 12241–12251. Forster, P.M.F., and K.P. Shine, 2002: Assessing the climate impact of trends in stratospheric water vapor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(6), doi:10.1029/2001GL013909. Forster, P.M.F., and M.J. Joshi, 2005: The role of halocarbons in the climate change of the troposphere and stratosphere. Clim. Change, 70, 249–266. Forster, P.M.F., and K.E. Taylor, 2006: Climate forcings and climate sensitivities diagnosed from coupled climate model integrations. J. Clim., 19, 6181–6194. Forster, P.M.F., M. Blackburn, R. Glover, and K.P. Shine, 2000: An examination of climate sensitivity for idealised climate change experiments in an intermediate general circulation model. Clim. Dyn., 16, 833–849. Forster, P.M.F., et al., 2005: Resolving uncertainties in the radiative forcing of HFC-134s. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer, 93, 447–460. Foster, S.S., 2004: Reconstruction of Solar Irradiance Variations for use in Studies of Global Climate Change: Application of Recent SOHO Observations with Historic Data from the Greenwich Observatory. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, Faculty of Science, Southampton, 231 p. Foukal, P., C. Frohlich, H. Spruit, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2006: Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth’s climate. Nature, 443, 161–166. Francey, R.J., et al., 1995: Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982. Nature, 373, 326–330. Francey, R.J., et al., 1999: A history of δ13C in atmospheric CH4 from the Cape Grim Air Archive and Antarctic fi rn air. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D19), 23633–23643. Frankenberg, C., et al., 2005: Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations. Science, 308, 1010–1014. Free, M., and J. Angell, 2002: Effect of volcanoes on the vertical temperature profi le in radiosonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D10), doi:10.1029/2001JD001128. Friedl, M.A., et al., 2002: Global land cover mapping from MODIS: algorithms and early results. Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 287–302. Fröhlich, C., and J. Lean, 2004: Solar radiative output and its variability: Evidence and mechanisms. Astron. Astrophys. Rev., 12, 273–320. Fueglistaler, S., H. Wernli, and T. Peter, 2004: Tropical troposphere-to- stratosphere transport inferred from trajectory calculations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03108, doi:10.1029/2003JD004069. Fuglestvedt, J.S., T.K. Berntsen, O. Godal, and T. Skodvin, 2000: Climate implications of GWP-based reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(3), 409–412, doi:10.1029/1999GL010939. Fuglestvedt, J.S., et al., 1999: Climatic forcing of nitrogen oxides through changes in tropospheric ozone and methane; global 3D model studies. Atmos. Environ., 33, 961–977. Fuglestvedt, J.S., et al., 2003: Metrics of climate change: assessing radiative forcing and emission indices. Clim. Change, 58, 267–331. Fuller, K.A., W.C. Malm, and S.M. Kreidenweis, 1999: Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D13), 15941–15954. Fuzzi, S., et al., 2001; A simplifi ed model of the water soluble organic component of atmospheric aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21), 4079– 4082. Gao, F., et al., 2005: MODIS bidirectional refl ectance distribution function and albedo Climate Modeling Grid products and the variability of albedo for major global vegetation types. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D01104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005190. Gauss, M., et al., 2006: Radiative forcing since preindustrial times due to ozone changes in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 575–599. Gedney, N., et al., 2006: Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records. Nature, 439, 835–838, doi:10.1038/ nature04504. Geller, M.A., and S.P. Smyshlyaev, 2002: A model study of total ozone evolution 1979-2000: The role of individual natural and anthropogenic effects. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(22), 5–8. Geogdzhayev, I.V., et al., 2002: Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 262–278. Ghan, S., et al., 2001: Evaluation of aerosol direct radiative forcing in MIRAGE. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D6), 5295–5316. Gillett, N.P., M.F. Wehner, S.F.B. Tett, and A.J. Weaver, 2004: Testing the linearity of the response to combined greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L14201, doi:10.1029/2004GL020111. Gleisner, H., and P. Thejll, 2003: Patterns of tropospheric response to solar variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(13), 1711, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL017129. Godal, O., 2003: The IPCC assessment of multidisciplinary issues: The choice of greenhouse gas indices. Clim. Change, 58, 243–249. Gohar, L.K., G. Myhre, and K.P. Shine, 2004: Updated radiative forcing estimates of four halocarbons. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01107, doi:10.1029/2003JD004320. Goloub, P., and O. Arino, 2000: Verifi cation of the consistency of POLDER aerosol index over land with ATSR-2/ERS-2 fi re product. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(6), 899–902. Goloub, P., et al., 1999: Validation of the fi rst algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements. IEEE Trans. Remote Sens., 37, 1586–1596. Goosse, H., H. Renssen, A. Timmermann, and R.S. Bradley, 2005: Internal and forced climate variability during the last millennium: a model-data comparison using ensemble simulations. Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 1345– 1360. Gordon, L.J., et al., 2005: Human modifi cation of global water vapor fl ows from the land surface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 7612–7617. Govindasamy, B., P.B. Duffy, and K. Caldeira, 2001a: Land use changes and Northern Hemisphere cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(2), 291– 294. Govindasamy, B., et al., 2001b: Limitations of the equivalent CO2 approximation in climate change simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D19), 22593–22603. Gray, L.J., J.D. Haigh, and R.G. Harrison, 2005: Review of the Infl uences of Solar Changes on the Earth’s Climate. Hadley Centre Technical Note No. 62, Met Offi ce, Exeter, 82 pp. Gregory, J.M., et al., 2004: A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03205, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018747. Gunn, R., and B.B. Phillips, 1957: An experimental investigation of the effect of air pollution on the initiation of rain. J. Meteorol., 14(3), 272– 280. Hadjinicolaou, P., J.A. Pyle, and N.R.P. Harris, 2005: The recent turnaround in stratospheric ozone over northern middle latitudes: a dynamical modeling perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12821, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL022476. Haigh, J.D., 2003: The effects of solar variability on the Earth’s climate. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 361, 95–111. Hall, J.C., and G.W. Lockwood, 2004: The chromospheric activity and variability of cycling and fl at activity solar-analog stars. Astrophys. J., 614, 942–946. Hamilton, J.F., et al., 2004: Partially oxidised organic components in urban aerosol using GCXGC-TOF/MS. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1279–1290. Hammitt, J.K., A.K. Jain, J.L. Adams, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1996: A welfare- based index for assessing environmental effects of greenhouse-gas emissions. Nature, 381, 301–303. Han, Q., W.B. Rossow, J. Zeng, and R. Welch, 2002: Three different behaviors of liquid water path of water clouds in aerosol-cloud interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 726–735. Hansen, J., and M. Sato, 2001: Trends of measured climate forcing agents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98, 14778–14783. Hansen, J., and L. Nazarenko, 2004: Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101, 423–428. Hansen, J., and M. Sato, 2004: Greenhouse gas growth rates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101, 16109–16114. Hansen, J., M. Sato, and R. Reudy, 1995: Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: Implications about mechanisms of global climate change. Atmos. Res., 37, 175–209. Hansen, J., M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, 1997: Radiative forcing and climate response. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D6), 6831–6864. Hansen, J., et al., 2000: Global warming in the twenty-fi rst century: An alternative scenario. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 97, 9875–9880. Hansen, J., et al., 2002: Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D18), 4347, doi:10.1029/2001JD001143. Hansen, J., et al., 2005: Effi cacy of climate forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776. Hansen, M.C., and B. Reed, 2000: A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1km global land cover products. Int. J. Remote Sens., 21, 1365–1373. Harder, J., et al., 2005: The spectral irradiance monitor I. Scientifi c requirements, instrument design and operation modes. Sol. Phys., 230, 141–167. Harding, R.J., and J.W. Pomeroy, 1996: The energy balance of the winter boreal landscape. J. Clim., 9, 2778–2787. Harnisch, J., R.R. Borchers, P.P. Fabian, and M.M. Maiss, 1996: Tropospheric trends for CF4 and C2F6 since 1982 derived from SF6 dated stratospheric air. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(10), 1099–1102. Harries, J.E., H.E. Brindley, P.J. Sagoo, and R.J. Bantges, 2001: Increases in greenhouse forcing inferred from the outgoing longwave radiation spectra of the Earth in 1970 and 1997. Nature, 410, 355–357. Harrison, R.G., and K.S. Carslaw, 2003: Ion-aerosol-cloud processes in the lower atmosphere. Rev. Geophys., 41, 1021. Harrison, R.G., and D.B. Stephenson, 2006: Empirical evidence for a nonlinear effect of galactic cosmic rays on clouds. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 462, 1221–1233. Hartmann, D.L., M.E. Ockert-Bell, and M.L. Michelsen, 1992: The effect of cloud type on Earth’s energy balance: global analysis. J. Clim., 5, 1281–1304. Hashvardhan, S.E. Schwartz, C.E. Benkovitz, and G. Guo, 2002: Aerosol infl uence on cloud microphysics examined by satellite measurements and chemical transport modelling. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 714–725. Hauglustaine, D.A., and G.P. Brasseur, 2001: Evolution of tropospheric ozone under anthropogenic activities and associated radiative forcing of climate. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 32337–32360, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD900175. Haxeltine, A., and I.C. Prentice, 1996: BIOME3: An equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model based on ecophysiological constraints, resource availability, and competition among plant functional types. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(4), 693–709. Haywood, J.M., and K.P. Shine, 1995: The effect of anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosol on the clear sky planetary radiation budget. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(5), 603–606. Haywood, J.M., and K.P. Shine. 1997: Multi-spectral calculations of the direct radiative forcing of tropospheric sulphate and soot aerosols using a column model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 123, 1907–1930. Haywood, J.M., and O. Boucher, 2000: Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review. Rev. Geophys., 38, 513–543. Haywood, J.M., V. Ramaswamy, and B.J. Soden, 1999: Tropospheric aerosol climate forcing in clear-sky satellite observations over the oceans. Science, 283, 1299–1305. Haywood, J.M., et al., 2003a: Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8471, doi:10.1029/2002JD002250. Haywood, J.M., et al., 2003b: The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8473, doi:10.1029/2002JD002226. Haywood, J.M, et al., 2003c: Radiative properties and direct radiative effect of Saharan dust measured by the C-130 aircraft during SHADE: 1. Solar spectrum. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D18), 8577, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002687. Haywood, J.M., et al., 2005: Can desert dust explain the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly over the Sahara during July 2003? J. Geophys. Res., 110, D05105, doi:10.1029/2004JD005232. Heal, G., 1997: Discounting and climate change: an editorial comment. Clim. Change, 37, 335–343. Hegg, D.A., et al., 1997: Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D21), 25293–25303. Hély, C., et al., 2003: Release of gaseous and particulate carbonaceous compound from biomass burning during the SAFARI 2000 dry season fi eld campaign. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8470, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002482. Hendricks, J., B. Kärcher, U. Lohmann, and M. Ponater, 2005: Do aircraft black carbon emissions affect cirrus clouds on the global scale? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12814, doi:10.1029/2005GL022740. Hendricks, J., et al., 2004: Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2521–2541. Herman, M., et al., 1997: Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 17039–17050, doi:10.1029/ 96JD02109. Hess, M., P. Koepke, and I. Schult, 1998: Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 831–844. Highwood, E.J., et al., 2003: Radiative properties and direct effect of Saharan dust measured by the C-130 aircraft during Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE): 2. Terrestrial spectrum. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D18), 8577, doi:10.1029/2002JD002552. Higurashi, A., and T. Nakajima. 1999. Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 924–941. Higurashi, A., et al., 2000: A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel AVHRR remote sensing. J. Clim., 13, 2011–2027. Hirsch, A.I., et al., 2006: Inverse modeling estimates of the global nitrous oxide surface fl ux from 1998–2001. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB1008, doi:10.1029/2004GB002443. Hirst, E., et al., 2001: Discrimination of micrometre-sized ice and super- cooled droplets in mixed-phase cloud. Atmos. Environ., 35, 33–47. Hofmann, D., 2003: et al., Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to stratosphere. In: Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere [Robock, A., and C. Oppenheimer (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 57–73. Holben, B.N., et al., 1998: AERONET: A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization. Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1–16. Holben, B.N., et al., 2001: An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D11), 12067–12097. Holzer-Popp, T., M. Schroedter, and G. Gesell, 2002: Retrieving aerosol optical depth and type in the boundary layer over land and ocean from simultaneous GOME spectrometer and ATSR-2 radiometer measurements - 2. Case study application and validation. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4578, doi:10.1029/2002JD002777. Hood, L.L., 2003: Thermal response of the tropical tropopause region to solar ultraviolet variations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2215, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018364. Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net fl ux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus, 51B, 298–313. Houghton, R.A., 2000: A new estimate of global sources and sinks of carbon from land use change. Eos, 81(19), S281. Houghton, R.A., 2003: Revised estimates of the annual net fl ux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management. Tellus, 55B, 378–390. Houghton, R.A., et al., 1983: Changes in the carbon content of terrestrial biota and soils between 1860 and 1980: a net release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Ecol. Monogr., 53, 235–262, doi:10.2307/1942531. Hoyt, D.V., and K.H. Schatten, 1993: A discussion of plausible solar irradiance variations, 1700-1992. J. Geophys. Res., 98(A11), 18895– 18906. Hsu, N.C., J.R. Herman, and C. Weaver, 2000: Determination of radiative forcing of Saharan dust using combined TOMS and ERBE data. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D16), 20649–20661. Hsu, N.C., J.R. Herman, and S.C. Tsay, 2003: Radiative impacts from biomass burning in the presence of clouds during boreal spring in southeast Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 28, doi:10.1029/2002GL016485. Huang, J., and R.G. Prinn, 2002: Critical evaluation of emissions of potential new gases for OH estimation. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4784, doi:10.1029/2002JD002394. Huebert, B.J., et al., 2003: An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D23), 8633, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD003550. Hurley, M.D., et al., 2005: IR spectrum and radiative forcing of CF4 revisited. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D02102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005201. Hurst, D.F., et al., 2004: Emissions of ozone-depleting substances in Russia during 2001. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14303, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD004633. Husar, R.B., J.M. Prospero, and L.L. Stowe, 1997: Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16889–16910. Husar, R.B., et al., 2001: Asian dust events of April 1998. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), 18317–18330. Ichinose, T., K. Shimodozono, and K. Hanaki, 1999: Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmos. Environ., 33, 3897–3909. Ichoku, C., et al., 2003: MODIS observation of aerosols and estimation of aerosol radiative forcing over southern Africa during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8499, doi:10.1029/2002JD002366. Ignatov, A., and L. Stowe, 2002: Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I: Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S Radiative Transfer Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 313–334. IPCC, 1990: Climate Change: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientifi c Assessment [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 364 pp. IPCC, 1999: Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: A Special Report of IPCC Working Groups I and III [Penner, J.E., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 373 pp. IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp. IPCC/TEAP, 2005: Special Report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofl uorocarbons and Perfl uorocarbons [Metz, B., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 488 pp. Ito, A., and J.E. Penner, 2005: Historical emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from biomass and fossil fuel burning for the period 1870–2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB2028, doi:10.1029/2004GB002374. Iversen, T., and O. Seland, 2002: A scheme for process-tagged SO4 and BC aerosols in NCAR CCM3: Validation and sensitivity to cloud processes. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4751, doi:10.1029/2001JD000885. Jacob, D.J., et al., 2005: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 207 pp. Jacobson, M.Z., 1999: Isolating nitrated and aromatic aerosols and nitrated aromatic gases as sources of ultraviolet light absorption. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), 3527–3542. Jacobson, M.Z., 2001a: Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D2), 1551–1568. Jacobson, M.Z., 2001b: Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature, 409, 695–697. Jacobson, M.Z., 2002: Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 4410, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD001376. Jacobson, M.Z., 2004: Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot’s feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21201, doi:10.1029/2004JD004945. Jaffe, D., et al., 2003: Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1613, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL017024. Jensen, E.J., and O.B. Toon, 1997: The potential impact of soot particles from aircraft exhaust on cirrus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(3), 249– 252. Jeong, M.J., Z.Q. Li, D.A. Chu, and S.C. Tsay, 2005: Quality and compatibility analyses of global aerosol products derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S09, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD004648. Jiang, H., and G. Feingold, 2006: Effect of aerosol on warm convective clouds: Aerosol-clouds-surface fl ux feedbacks in a new coupled large eddy model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D01202, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD006138. Jiang, H., G. Feingold, and W.R. Cotton, 2002: Simulations of aerosol- cloud-dynamical feedbacks resulting from of entrainment of aerosols into the marine boundary layer during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4813, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD001502. Jirikowic, J.L., and P.E. Damon, 1994: The Medieval solar activity maximum. Clim. Change, 26, 309–316. Johnson, B.T., 2005: The semidirect aerosol effect: comparison of a single- column model with large eddy simulation for marine stratocumulus. J. Clim., 18, 119–130. Johnson, B.T., K.P. Shine, and P.M. Forster, 2004: The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impact of absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1407–1422. Jones, A., D.L. Roberts, and M.J. Woodage, 2001: Indirect sulphate aerosol forcing in a climate model with an interactive sulphur cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D17), 20293–20301. Jones, P.D., A. Moberg, T.J. Osborn, and K.R. Briffa, 2003: Surface climate responses to explosive volcanic eruptions seen in long European temperature records and mid-to-high latitude tree-ring density around the Northern Hemisphere. In: Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere [Robock, A., and C. Oppenheimer (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 239–254. Jonson, J.E., D. Simpson, H. Fagerli, and S. Solberg, 2005: Can we explain the trends in European ozone levels? Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 5957–5985. Joos, F., et al., 1996. An effi cient and accurate representation of complex oceanic and biospheric models of anthropogenic carbon uptake. Tellus, 48B, 397–417. Joos, F., et al., 2001. Global warming feedbacks on terrestrial carbon uptake under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 891-908, 2001 Joshi, M.M., and K.P. Shine, 2003: A GCM study of volcanic eruptions as a cause of increased stratospheric water vapor. J. Clim., 16, 3525–3534. Joshi, M., et al., 2003: A comparison of climate response to different radiative forcings in three general circulation models: Towards an improved metric of climate change. Clim. Dyn., 20, 843–854. Junge, C.E., 1975: The possible infl uence of aerosols on the general circulation and climate and possible approaches for modelling. In: The Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modelling: Report of the International Study Conference in Stockholm, 29 July-10 August 1974: organised by WMO and ICSU and supported by UNEP Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP), WMO-ICSU Joint Organising Committee. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 244–251. Kahn, R., P. Banerjee, and D. McDonald, 2001: Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosols over ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), 18219–18238. Kahn, R.A., et al., 2005: Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706. Kalkstein, A.J., and R.C. Balling Jr., 2004: Impact of unusually clear weather on United States daily temperature range following 9/11/2001. Clim. Res., 26, 1–4. Kanakidou, M., et al., 2005: Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1053–1123. Kandlikar, M., 1996: Indices for comparing greenhouse gas emissions: integrating science and economics. Energy Econ., 18, 265–282. Kapustin, V.N., et al., 2006: On the determination of a cloud condensation nuclei from satellite: challenges and possibilities. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D04202, doi:10.1029/2004JD005527. Kärcher, B., 1999: Aviation-produced aerosols and contrails. Surv. Geophys., 20, 113–167. Kasischke, E.S., and J.E. Penner, 2004: Improving global estimates of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14S01, doi:10.1029/2004JD004972. Kaufman, Y.J., C.J. Tucker, and R.L Mahoney, 1991: Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate: Heating or cooling? J. Clim., 4, 578–588. Kaufman, Y.J., D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, 2002: A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system. Nature, 419, 215–223. Kaufman, Y.J., et al., 1997: Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols over the land from EOS-MODIS. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 17051–17068. Kaufman, Y.J., et al., 2001: Absorption of sunlight by dust as inferred from satellite and ground-based remote sensing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(8), 1479–1482. Kaufman Y.J., et al., 2005a: Aerosol anthropogenic component estimated from satellite data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17804, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL023125. Kaufman, Y.J., et al., 2005b: A critical examination of the residual cloud contamination and diurnal sampling effects on MODIS estimates of aerosol over ocean. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote, 43(12), 2886–2897. Keeling, C.D., and T.P. Whorf, 2005: Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/sio-keel-fl ask/sio-keel-fl ask.html. Keeling, C.D., A.F. Bollenbacher, and T.P. Whorf, 2005: Monthly atmospheric 13C/12C isotopic ratios for 10 SIO stations. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/iso-sio/iso-sio. html. Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whorf, M. Wahlen, and J. van der Plicht, 1995: Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature, 375, 666–670. Keeling, R.F., and S.R. Shertz, 1992: Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon cycle. Nature, 358, 723–727. Keeling, R.F., S.C. Piper, and M. Heimann, 1996: Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature, 381, 218–221. Keil, A., and J.M. Haywood, 2003: Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during SAFARI 2000: A case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D13), 8467, doi:10.1029/2002JD002315. Keppler, F., J.T.G. Hamilton, M. Brass, and T. Röckmann, 2006: Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature, 439, 187–191, doi:10.1038/nature04420. Kernthaler, S.C., R. Toumi, and J.D. Haigh, 1999: Some doubts concerning a link between cosmic ray fl uxes and global cloudiness. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(7), 863–866, doi:10.1029/1999GL900121. Khainroutdinov, M., and Y. Kogan, 2000: A new cloud physics parametrization in a large-eddy simulation model of marine stratocumulus. Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 229–243. Khalil, M.A.K., et al., 2003: Atmospheric perfl uorocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 4358–4361. Kiehl, J.T., et al., 2000: Radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosols from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D1), 1441–1457. Kim, B.-G., S.E. Schwartz, and M.A. Miller, 2003: Effective radius of cloud droplets by ground-based remote sensing: Relationship to aerosol. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D23), doi:10.1029/2003JD003721. Kinne, S., et al., 2003: Monthly averages of aerosol properties: a global comparison among models, satellite data, and AERONET ground data. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D20), 4634, doi:10.1029/2001JD001253. Kinne, S., et al., 2006: An AeroCom initial assessment: optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1815–1834. Kirchstetter, T.W., T. Novakov, and P.V. Hobbs, 2004: Evidence that the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols is affected by organic carbon. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21208, doi:10.1029/2004JD004999. Kirkevåg, A., and T. Iversen, 2002: Global direct radiative forcing by process-parametrized aerosol optical properties. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 4433, doi:10.1029/2001JD000886. Klein Goldewijk, K., 2001: Estimating global land use change over the past 300 years: The HYDE database. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 417–433. Knutson, T.R., et al., 2006: Assessment of twentieth-century regional surface temperature trends using the GFDL CM2 coupled models. J. Clim., 10(9), 1624–1651. Koch, D., 2001: Transport and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in the GISS GCM. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D17), 20311–20332. Korolev, A.V., and G.A. Isaac, 2005: Shattering during sampling OAPs and HVPS. Part I: snow particles. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 22, 528–542. Kotchenruther, R.A., and P.V. Hobbs, 1998: Humidifi cation factors of aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 32081–32089. Kotchenruther, R.A., P.V. Hobbs, and D.A. Hegg, 1999: Humidifi cation factors for atmospheric aerosols off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D2), 2239–2251. Kristjánsson, J.E., and J. Kristiansen, 2000: Is there a cosmic ray signal in recent variations in global cloudiness and cloud radiative forcing? J. Geophys. Res., 105(D9), 11851–11863. Kristjánsson, J.E., A. Staple, J. Kristiansen, and E. Kaas, 2002: A new look at possible connections between solar activity, clouds and climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2002GL015646. Kristjánsson, J.E., et al., 2005: Response of the climate system to aerosol direct and indirect forcing: the role of cloud feedbacks. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006299. Krizan P., and J. Lastovicka, 2005: Trends in positive and negative ozone laminae in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005477. Kroeze, C., E. Dumont, and S.P. Seitzinger, 2005: New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers, estuaries and continental shelves. Environ. Sci., 2(2–3), 159–165. Krol, M., and J. Lelieveld, 2003: Can the variability in tropospheric OH be deduced from measurements of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)? J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), 4125, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002423. Krol, M., et al., 2003: Continuing emissions of methyl chloroform from Europe. Nature, 421, 131–135. Krueger, A.J., et al., 2000: Ultraviolet remote sensing of volcanic emissions. In: Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism [Mouginis-Mark, P.J., J.A. Crisp, and J.H. Fink (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 116, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 25–43. Krüger, O., and H. Graßl, 2002: The indirect aerosol effect over Europe. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL14081. Labitzke, K., 2004: On the signal of the 11-year sunspot cycle in the stratosphere and its modulation by the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 66, 1151–1157. Labitzke, K., et al., 2002: The global signal of the 11-year solar cycle in the stratosphere: observations and models. J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 64, 203–210. Lambert, A., et al., 1993: Measurements of the evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol cloud by ISAMS. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(12), 1287–1290. Langenfelds, R.L., et al., 2002: Interannual growth rate variations of atmospheric CO2 and its delta C-13, H-2, CH4, and CO between 1992 and 1999 linked to biomass burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466. Lawrence, M.G., P. Jöckel, and R. von Kuhlmann, 2001: What does the global mean OH concentration tell us? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 1, 43–74. Lean, J., 2000: Evolution of the sun’s spectral irradiance since the Maunder Minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2425–2428. Lean, J., A. Skumanich, and O.White, 1992: Estimating the sun’s radiative output during the Maunder Minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(15), 1595–1598. Lean, J., J. Beer, and R. Bradley, 1995: Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: implications for climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3195–3198. Lean, J.L., Y.M. Wang, and N.R. Sheeley, 2002: The effect of increasing solar activity on the Sun’s total and open magnetic fl ux during multiple cycles: Implications for solar forcing of climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(24), 2224, doi:10.1029/2002GL015880. Lean, J., G. Rottman, J. Harder, and G. Kopp, 2005: SORCE contribution to new understanding of global change and solar variability. Solar Phys., 230, 27–53. Lean, J.L., et al., 1997: Detection and parametrization of variations in solar mid and near ultraviolet radiation (200 to 400 nm). J. Geophys. Res., 102(D25), 29939–29956. Lee, K.H., Y.J. Kim, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, 2004: Estimation of regional aerosol optical thickness from satellite observations during the 2001 ACE-Asia IOP. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S16, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD004126. Lee, R.B. III, M.A. Gibson, R.S. Wilson, and S. Thomas, 1995: Long-term total solar irradiance variability during sunspot cycle 22. J. Geophys. Res., 100(A2), 1667–1675. Lefohn, A.S., J.D. Husar, and R.B. Husar, 1999: Estimating historical anthropogenic global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850-1990. Atmos. Environ., 33, 3435–3444. Lelieveld, J., P.J. Crutzen, and F.J. Dentener, 1998: Changing concentration, lifetime and climate forcing of atmospheric methane. Tellus, 50B, 128– 150. Lelieveld, J., W. Peters, F.J. Dentener, and M.C. Krol, 2002: Stability of tropospheric hydroxyl chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D23), 4715, doi:10.1029/2002JD002272. Lelieveld, J., et al., 2004: Increasing ozone over the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 304, 1483–1487. Levy, R.C., et al., 2003: Evaluation of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D19), 8594, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002460. Li, J., et al., 2005: Halocarbon emissions estimated from AGAGE measured pollution events at Trinidad Head, California. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14308, doi:10.1029/2004JD005739. Liao, H., and J.H. Seinfeld, 2005: Global impacts of gas-phase chemistry- aerosol interactions on direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols and ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18208, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD005907. Liao, H., J.H. Seinfeld, P.J. Adams, and L.J. Mickley, 2004: Global radiative forcing of coupled tropospheric ozone and aerosols in a unifi ed general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16207, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD004456. Liao, T., C.D. Camp, and Y.L. Yung, 2004: The seasonal cycle of N2O. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17108, doi:10.1029/2004GL020345. Liousse, C., et al., 1996: A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D14), 19411–19432. Liu, H.Q., R.T. Pinker, and B.N. Holben, 2005: A global view of aerosols from merged transport models, satellite, and ground observations. J. Geophys. Res., 110(D10), doi:10.1029/2004JD004695. Liu, X.H., and J.E. Penner, 2002: Effect of Mount Pinatubo H2SO4/H2O aerosol on ice nucleation in the upper troposphere using a global chemistry and transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D12), doi:10.1029/ 2001JD000455. Liu, Y., and P.H. Daum, 2002: Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing. Nature, 419, 580–581. Lockwood, M., and R. Stamper, 1999: Long-term drift of the coronal source magnetic fl ux and the total solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(16), 2461–2464. Loeb, N.G., and S. Kato, 2002: Top-of-atmosphere direct radiative effect of aerosols over the tropical oceans from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument. J. Clim., 15, 1474–1484. Loeb, N.G., and N. Manalo-Smith, 2005: Top-of-atmosphere direct radiative effect of aerosols over global oceans from merged CERES and MODIS observations. J. Clim., 18, 3506–3526. Lohar, D., and B. Pal, 1995: The effect of irrigation on premonsoon season precipitation over south west Bengal, India. J. Clim., 8, 2567–2570. Lohmann, U., and G. Lesins, 2002: Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect. Science, 298, 1012–1016. Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter, 2005: Global indirect aerosol effects: A review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715–737. Lohmann, U. and C. Leck, 2005: Importance of submicron surface active organic aerosols for pristine Arctic clouds. Tellus, 57B, 261–268. Lohmann, U., B. Kärcher, and J. Hendrichs, 2004: Sensitivity studies of cirrus clouds formed by heterogeneous freezing in ECHAM GCM. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16204, doi:10.1029/2003JD004443. Lohmann, U., J. Feichter, J.E. Penner, and W.R. Leaitch, 2000: Indirect effect of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols: a mechanistic treatment. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D10), 12193–12206. Lohmann, U., et al., 2001: Vertical distributions of sulfur species simulated by large scale atmospheric models in COSAM: comparison with observations. Tellus, 53B, 646–672. Loveland, T.R., et al., 2000: Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHR R data. Int. J. Remote Sens., 21, 1303–1330. Lowe, D.C., and W. Allan, 2002: A simple procedure for evaluating global cosmogenic 14C production in the atmosphere using neutron monitor data. Radiocarbon, 44, 149–157. Lowe, D.C., M.R. Manning, G.W. Brailsford, and A.M. Bromley, 1997: The 1991-1992 atmospheric methane anomaly: Southern hemisphere 13 C decrease and growth rate fl uctuations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(8), 857–860. Lowe, D.C., et al., 2004: Seasonal cycles of mixing ratio and 13C in atmospheric methane at Suva, Fiji. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23308 doi:10.1029/2004JD005166. Lu, M.-L., and J. Seinfeld, 2005: Study of the aerosol indirect effect by large-eddy simulation of marine stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3909–3932. Luo, C., N.M. Mahowald, and J. del Corral, 2003: Sensitivity study of meteorological parameters on mineral aerosol mobilization, transport, and distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D15), 4447, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD003483. MacFarling Meure, C., et al., 2006: The Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BP. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14810, doi:10.1029/2006GL026152. Macke, A., M. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, 1996: The infl uence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D18), 23311–23316. Magi, B.I., and P.V. Hobbs, 2003: Effects of humidity on aerosols in southern Africa during the biomass burning season. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8495, doi:10.1029/2002JD002144. Magi, B.I., et al., 2005: Properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U.S. East Coast in July and August 2001. J. Atmos. Sci., 62(4), 919–933, doi:10.1175/JAS3263.1. Mahowald, N.M., and C. Luo, 2003: A less dusty future? Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), doi:10.1029/2003GL017880. Mahowald, N.M., G.C. Rivera, and C. Luo, 2004: Comment on Tegen et al. 2004, on the “Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emissions”. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24105, doi:10.1029/2004GL021272. Mak, J.E., M.R. Manning, and D.C. Lowe, 2000: Aircraft observations of δ13C of atmospheric methane over the Pacifi c in August 1991 and 1993: evidence of an enrichment in 13CH4 in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D1), 1329–1335. Malm, W.C., et al., 2004: Spatial and monthly trends in speciated fi ne particle concentration in the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03306, doi:10.1029/2003JD003739. Manabe, S., and R.T. Wetherald, 1967: Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 241–259. Manne, A.S., and R.G. Richels, 2001: An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases. Nature, 410, 675–676. Manning, A.C., and R.F. Keeling, 2006: Global oceanic and land biotic carbon sinks from the Scripps atmospheric oxygen fl ask sampling network. Tellus, 58B, 95–116. Manning, A.J., et al., 2003: Estimating European emissions of ozone- depleting and greenhouse gases using observations and a modelling back-attribution technique. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D14), 4405, doi:10.1029/2002JD002312. Manning, M.R., A. Gomez, and G.W. Brailsford, 1997: Annex B11: The New Zealand CO2 measurement programme. In: Report of the Ninth WMO Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. WMO Global Atmosphere Watch No. 132; WMO TD No. 952, Commonwealth Scientifi c and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, pp. 120–123. Manning, M.R., et al., 2005: Short term variations in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. Nature, 436, 1001–1004. Mannstein, H., and U. Schumann, 2005: Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe. Meteorol. Z., 14, 549–544. Maria, S., F. Russell, L.M. Turpin, and R.J. Porcja, 2002: FTIR measurements of functional groups and organic mass in aerosol samples over the Caribbean. Atmos. Environ., 36, 5185–5196. Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R.J. Andres, 2006: Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http:// cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.htm. Marquart, S., and B. Mayer, 2002: Towards a reliable GCM estimation of contrail radiative forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8), doi:10.1029/ 2001GL014075. Marquart, S., M. Ponater, F. Mager, and R. Sausen, 2003: Future development of contrail cover, optical depth, and radiative forcing: Impacts of increasing air traffi c and climate change. J. Clim., 16, 2890– 2904. Marsh, N.D., and H. Svensmark, 2000a: Low cloud properties infl uenced by cosmic rays. Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 5004–5007. Marsh, N.D., and H. Svensmark, 2000b: Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate. Space Sci. Rev., 94, 215–230. Marshak, A., et al., 2006: Impact of three-dimensional radiative effects on satellite retrievals of cloud droplet sizes. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D09207, doi:10.1029/2005JD006686. Martin, G.M., D.W. Johnson, and A. Spice, 1994: The measurement and parametrization of effective radius of droplets in warm stratiform clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1823–1842. Martin, S.T., et al., 2004: Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 183–214. Martonchik, J.V., et al., 2004: Comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depths over desert sites. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16102, doi:10.1029/2004GL019807. Matthews, E., 1983: Global vegetation and land-use: new high-resolution data-bases for climate studies. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22, 474–487. Matthews, H.D., A.J. Weaver, M. Eby, and K.J. Meissner, 2003: Radiative forcing of climate by historical land cover change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 271–274. Matthews, H.D., et al., 2004: Natural and anthropogenic climate change: Incorporating historical land cover change, vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle. Clim. Dyn., 22, 461–479. Matthias, I., et al., 2004: Multiyear aerosol observations with dual wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D13203, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600. McCormack, J.P., 2003: The infl uence of the 11-year solar cycle on the quasi-biennial oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (22), 2162, doi:10.1029/2003GL018314. McCormick, M.P., 1987: SAGE II: An overview. Adv. Space Res., 7, 219– 226. McCulloch, A., and P.M. Midgley, 2001: The history of methyl chloroform emissions: 1951-2000. Atmos. Environ., 35, 5311–5319. McFiggans, G., et al., 2006: The effect of aerosol composition and properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2593–2649. Meehl, G.A., et al., 2004: Combinations of natural and anthropogenic forcings in twentieth-century climate. J. Clim., 17, 3721–3727. Meerkötter, R., et al., 1999: Radiative forcing by contrails. Ann. Geophys., 17, 1080–1094. Melillo, J.M., et al., 2001: Nitrous oxide emissions from forests and pastures of various ages in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 34179–34188. Menon, S., and A. Del Genio, 2007: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate. In: Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment [Schlesinger, M., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, in press. Menon, S., A.D. Del Genio, D. Koch, and G. Tselioudis, 2002a: GCM simulations of the aerosol indirect effect: sensitivity to cloud parametrization and aerosol burden. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 692–713. Menon, S., J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo, 2002b: Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science, 297, 2250–2253. Menon, S., et al., 2003: Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parametrizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4762, doi:10.1029/2003JD003902. Meyer, R., et al., 2002: Regional radiative forcing by line-shaped contrails derived from satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D10), 4104, doi:10.1029/2001JD000426. Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, and D. Rind, 2001: Uncertainty in preindustrial abundance of tropospheric ozone: implications for radiative forcing calculations. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D4), 3389–3399 doi:10.1029/ 2000JD900594. Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, B.D. Field, and D. Rind, 2004: Climate response to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times: a comparison between ozone and equivalent CO2 forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05106, doi:10.1029/2003JD003653. Mikami, M., et al., 2006: Aeolian dust experiment on climate impact: an overview of Japan-China Joint Project ADEC. Global Planet. Change, 52, 142–172, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.03.001. Miller, B.R., et al., 1998: Atmospheric trend and lifetime of chlorodifl uoromethane (HCFC-22) and the global tropospheric OH concentration. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D11), 13237–13248, doi:10.1029/ 98JD00771. Miller, R.L., G.A. Schmidt, and D.T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century IPCC AR4 models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323. Millet, D.B., and A.H. Goldstein, 2004: Evidence of continuing methylchloroform emissions from the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17101, doi:10.1029/2004GL020166. Ming, Y., and L.M. Russell, 2002: Thermodynamic equilibrium of organic- electrolyte mixtures in aerosol particles. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 48, 1331–1348. Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, P.A. Ginoux, and L.H. Horowitz, 2005a: Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D20208, doi:10.1029/2004JD005573. Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, L.J. Donner, and V.T.J. Phillips, 2006: A new parametrization of cloud droplet activation applicable to general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci., 63(4), 1348–1356. Ming, Y., et al., 2005b: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006161. Ming, Y., et al., 2007: Modelling the interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds with a self-consistent cloud scheme in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64(4), 1189–1209. Minnis, P., 2005: Reply. J. Clim., 18, 2783–2784. Minnis, P., J.K. Ayers, R. Palikonda, and D. Phan, 2004: Contrails, cirrus trends, and climate. J. Clim., 17, 1671–1685. Minnis, P., et al., 1993: Radiative climate forcing by the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Science, 259, 1411–1415. Minnis, P., et al., 1998: Transformation of contrails into cirrus during SUCCESS. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1157–1160. Mircea, M., et al., 2005: Importance of the organic aerosol fraction for modeling aerosol hygroscopic growth and activation: a case study in the Amazon Basin. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3111–3126. Mishchenko, M.I., et al., 1999: Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results. Appl. Opt., 38, 7325–7341. Möhler, O., et al., 2005: Effect of sulfuric acid coating on heterogeneous ice nucleation by soot aerosol particles. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11210, doi:10.1029/2004JD005169. Montzka, S.A., et al., 1999: Present and future trends in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting halogens. Nature, 398, 690–694. Montzka, S.A., et al., 2003: Controlled substances and other source gases. In: Scientifi c Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 1.1–1.83. Moore, N., and S. Rojstaczer, 2001: Irrigation-induced rainfall and the Great Plains. J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 1297–1309. Morgan, C.G., et al., 2004: Isotopic fractionation of nitrous oxide in the stratosphere: Comparison between model and observations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04305, doi:10.1029/2003JD003402. Morimoto, S., S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, and T. Yamanouchi , 2006: Temporal variations of the carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane observed at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard from 1996 to 2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01807, doi:10.1029/2005GL024648. Mosley-Thompson, E., T.A. Mashiotta, and L.G. Thompson, 2003: High resolution ice core records of Late Holocene volcanism: Current and future contributions from the Greenland PARCA cores. In: Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere [Robock, A., and C. Oppenheimer (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 153–164. Mouillot, F., et al., 2006: Global carbon emissions from biomass burning in the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01801, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL024707. Moulin, C., and I. Chiapello, 2004: Evidence of the control of summer atmospheric transport of African dust over the Atlantic by Sahel sources from TOMS satellites (1979-2000). Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02107, doi:10.1029/2003GL018931. Moulin, C., H.R. Gordon, V.F. Banzon, and R.H. Evans, 2001: Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), 18239–18249. Murayama, T., et al., 2001: Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18345– 18360. Murphy, D.M., 2005: Something in the air. Science, 307, 1888–1890. Muscheler, R., et al., 2007: Solar activity during the last 1000 yr inferred from radionuclide records. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26, 82-97, doi:10.1016/ j.quascirev.2006.07.012. Myhre, G., and F. Stordal, 2001a: Global sensitivity experiments of the radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18193– 18204. Myhre, G., and F. Stordal, 2001b: On the tradeoff of the solar and thermal infrared radiative impact of contrails. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3119– 3122. Myhre, G., and A. Myhre, 2003: Uncertainties in radiative forcing due to surface albedo changes caused by land-use changes. J. Clim., 16, 1511– 1524. Myhre, G., A. Myhre, and F. Stordal, 2001: Historical evolution of radiative forcing of climate. Atmos. Environ., 35, 2361–2373. Myhre, G., M.M. Kvalevåg, and C.B. Schaaf, 2005a: Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic vegetation change based on MODIS surface albedo data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21410, doi:10.1029/2005GL024004. Myhre, G., et al., 2003: Modelling the solar radiative impact of aerosols from biomass burning during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8501, doi:10.1029/2002JD002313. Myhre, G., et al., 2004a: Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 499–513. Myhre, G., et al., 2004b: Uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosols. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 485–498. Myhre, G., et al., 2005b: Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1697–1719. Naja, M., and H. Akimoto, 2004: Contribution of regional pollution and long-range transport to the Asia-Pacifi c region: Analysis of long-term ozonesonde data over Japan. J. Geophys. Res., 109, 1306, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD004687. Naja, M., H. Akimoto, and J. Staehelin, 2003: Ozone in background and photochemically aged air over central Europe: analysis of long-term ozonesonde data from Hohenpeissenberg and Payerne. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4063, doi:10.1029/2002JD002477. Nakajima, T., and A. Higurashi, 1998: A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3815– 3818. Nakajima, T., A. Higurashi, K. Kawamoto, and J. Penner, 2001: A possible correlation between satellite-derived cloud and aerosol microphysical parameters. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1171–1174. Nakajima, T., et al., 1996: Aerosol optical properties in the Iranian region obtained by ground-based solar radiation measurements in the summer of 1991. J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 1265–1278. Nakazawa, T., S. Moromoto, S. Aoki, and M. Tanaka, 1997: Temporal and spatial variations of the carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Western Pacifi c region. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1271– 1285. Nakicenovic, N., A. Grübler, and A. McDonald (eds), 1998: Global Energy Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 299 pp. Nenes, A., and J.H. Seinfeld, 2003: Parametrization of cloud droplet formation in global climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002911. Nenes, A., et al., 2002: Can chemical effects on cloud droplet number rival the fi rst indirect effect? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1848, doi:10.1029/ 2002GL015295. Nevison, C.D., S. Solomon, and R.S. Gao, 1999: Buffering interactions in the modeled response of stratospheric O3 to increased NOx and HOx. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), 3741–3754, 10.1029/1998JD100018. Nevison, C.D., D.E. Kinnison, and R.F. Weiss, 2004a: Stratospheric infl uences on the tropospheric seasonal cycles of nitrous oxide and chlorofl uorocarbons. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20103, doi:10.1029/ 2004GL020398. Nevison, C., T. Lueker, and R.F. Weiss, 2004b: Quantifying the nitrous oxide source from coastal upwelling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB1018, doi:10.1029/2003GB002110. Nevison, C.D., et al., 2005: Southern Ocean ventilation inferred from seasonal cycles of atmospheric N2O and O2/N2 at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Tellus, 57B, 218–229. Newchurch, M.J., et al., 2003: Evidence for slowdown in stratospheric ozone loss: fi rst stage of ozone recovery. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4507, doi:10.1029/2003JD003471. Nordhaus, W.D., 1997: Discounting in economics and climate change: an editorial comment. Clim. Change, 37, 315–328. Notholt, J., et al., 2005: Infl uence of tropospheric SO2 emissions on particle formation and the stratospheric humidity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07810, doi:10.1029/2004GL022159. Novakov, T., D.A. Hegg, and P.V. Hobbs, 1997: Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols on the East coast of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D25), 30023–20030. Novakov, T., et al., 2003: Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(6), 1324, doi:10.1029/ 2002GL016345. Nozawa, T., T. Nagashima, H. Shiogama, and S.A. Crooks, 2005: Detecting natural infl uence on surface air temperature change in the early twentieth century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20719, doi:10.1029/2005GL023540. O’Doherty, S., et al., 2004: Rapid growth of hydrofl uorocarbon 134a and hydrochlorofl uorocarbons 141b, 142b, and 22 from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) observations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Mace Head, Ireland. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06310, doi:10.1029/2003JD004277. Oinas, V., et al., 2001: Radiative cooling by stratospheric water vapor: big differences in GCM results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2791–2794. Olivier, J.G.J., and J.J.M. Berdowski, 2001: Global emissions sources and sinks. In: The Climate System [Berdowski, J., R. Guicherit, and B.J. Heij (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema/Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, pp. 33–78, updated at http://www.mnp.nl/edgar/. Oltmans, S.J., et al., 2006: Long-term changes in tropospheric ozone. Atmos. Environ., 40, 3156–3173. O’Neill, B.C., 2000: The jury is still out on global warming potentials. Clim. Change, 44, 427–443. O’Neill, B., 2003: Economics, natural science, and the costs of global warming potentials. Clim. Change, 58, 251–260. Oram, D.E., 1999: Trends of Long-Lived Anthropogenic Halocarbons in the Southern Hemisphere and Model Calculations of Global Emissions. PhD Thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 249 pp. Oram, D.E., et al., 1998: Growth of fl uoroform (CHF3, HFC-23) in the background atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 35–38, doi:10.1029/ 97GL03483. Osborne, S.R., J.M. Haywood, P.N. Francis, and O. Dubovik, 2004: Short- wave radiative effects of biomass burning aerosol during SAFARI2000. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1423–1448. Palikonda, R., P. Minnis, D.P. Duda, and H. Mannstein, 2005: Contrail coverage derived from 2001 AVHRR data over the continental United States of America and surrounding area. Meteorol. Z., 14, 525–536. Palmer, A.S., et al., 2002: Antarctic volcanic fl ux ratios from Law Dome ice cores. Ann. Glaciol., 35, 329–332. Palmer, P.I., et al., 2003: Eastern Asian emissions of anthropogenic halocarbons deduced from aircraft concentration data. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4753, doi:10.1029/2003JD003591. Pan, W., M.A. Tatang, G.J. McRae, and R.G. Prinn, 1997: Uncertainty analysis of direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D18), 21915–21924. Parrish, D.D., et al., 2004: Changes in the photochemical environment of the temperate North Pacifi c troposphere in response to increased Asian emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23S18, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD004978. Pavelin, E.G., C.E. Johnson, S. Rughooputh, and R. Toumi, 1999: Evaluation of pre-industrial surface ozone measurements made using Schönbein’s method. Atmos. Environ., 33, 919–929. Peng, Y., and U. Lohmann, 2003: Sensitivity study of the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution on the indirect aerosol effect. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1507, doi:10.1029/2003GL017192. Penner, J.E., S.Y. Zhang, and C.C. Chuang, 2003: Soot and smoke aerosol may not warm climate. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 4657, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD003409. Penner, J.E., X. Dong, and Y. Chen, 2004: Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect. Nature, 427, 231–234. Penner, J.E., et al., 2001: Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 289– 348. Penner, J. E., et al., 2002: A comparison of model- and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth and refl ectivity. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 441–460. Penner, J.E., et al., 2006: Model intercomparison of indirect aerosol effects. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 1579–1617. Penner, J.E., et al., 2007: Effect of black carbon on mid-troposphere and surface temperature trends. In: Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment [Schlesinger, M., et al., (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, in press. Perlwitz, J., and H.-F. Graf, 2001: Troposphere-stratosphere dynamic coupling under strong and weak polar vortex conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 271–274. Perlwitz, J., and N. Harnik, 2003: Observational evidence of a stratospheric infl uence on the troposphere by planetary wave refl ection. J. Clim., 16, 3011–3026. Pham, M., O. Boucher, and D. Hauglustaine, 2005: Changes in atmospheric sulfur burdens and concentrations and resulting radiative forcings under IPCC SRES emission scenarios for 1990-2100. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D06112, doi:10.1029/2004JD005125. Philipona, R., et al., 2004: Radiative forcing - measured at Earth’s surface - corroborate the increasing greenhouse effect. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03202, doi:10.1029/2003GL018765. Pielke, R.A. Sr., et al., 2002: The infl uence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system - relevance to climate change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 360, 1705–1719. Pitari, G., E. Mancini, V. Rizi, and D.T. Shindell, 2002: Impact of future climate and emissions changes on stratospheric aerosols and ozone. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 414–440. Platt, U., W. Allan, and D.C. Lowe, 2004: Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration from 13C/12C ratios in atmospheric methane. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2393–2399. Ponater, M., S. Marquart, and R. Sausen, 2002: Contrails in a comprehensive global climate model: Parametrization and radiative forcing results. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D13), doi:10.1029/2001JD000429. Ponater, M., S. Marquart, R. Sausen, and U. Schumann, 2005: On contrail climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L10706, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL022580. Posfai, M., et al., 2003: Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8483, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002291. Prata, A., W. Rose, S. Self, and D. O’Brien, 2003: Global, long-term sulphur dioxide measurements from TOVS data: a new tool for studying explosive volcanism and climate. In: Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere [Robock, A., and C. Oppenheimer (eds).]. Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 75–92. Prather, M.J., 2003: Atmospheric science: an environmental experiment with H2? Science, 302, 581–583. Prather, M.J., et al., 2001: Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 239– 287. Preminger, D.G., and S.R. Walton, 2005: A new model of total solar irradiance based on sunspot areas. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14109, doi:10.1029/2005GL022839. Prentice, I.C., et al., 2001: The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 184– 238. Prinn, R.G., 2004: Non-CO2 greenhouse gases. In: The Global Carbon Cycle [Field, C., and M. Raupach (eds.)]. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 205–216. Prinn, R.G., et al., 1990: Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from ten years of ALE-GAGE data. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18369–18385. Prinn, R.G., et al., 2000: A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 17751–17792. Prinn, R.G., et al., 2001: Evidence for substantial variations of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the past two decades. Science, 292, 1882–1888. Prinn, R.G., et al., 2005a: Evidence for variability of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals over the past quarter century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07809, doi:10.1029/2004GL022228. Prinn, R.G., et al., 2005b: The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network: DB1001. Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis World Data Center, http:// cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/alegage.html. Prospero, J.M., et al., 2002: Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identifi ed with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. Rev. Geophys., 40(1), doi:10.1029/2000RG000095. Putaud, J.P., et al., 2004: European aerosol phenomenology-2: chemical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe. Atmos. Environ., 38, 2579–2595. Pyle, J., et al., 2005: Ozone and climate: a review of interconnections. In: Special Report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofl uorocarbons and Perfl uorocarbons [Metz., B., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 83–132. Quaas, J., and O. Boucher, 2005: Constraining the fi rst aerosol indirect radiative forcing in the LMDZ GCM using POLDER and MODIS satellite data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17814, doi:10.1029/2005GL023850. Quaas, J., O. Boucher, and F.-M. Breon, 2004: Aerosol indirect effects in POLDER satellite data and the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D08205, doi:10.1029/2003JD004317. Quaas, J., O. Boucher, and U. Lohmann, 2005: Constraining the total aerosol indirect effect in the LMDZ and ECHAM4 GCMs using MODIS satellite data. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 9669–9690. Quay, P., et al., 2000: Atmospheric (CO)-C-14: A tracer of OH concentration and mixing rates. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D12), 15147–15166. Quinn, P.K., and T.S. Bates, 2005: Regional aerosol properties: comparisons from ACE 1, ACE 2, Aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE Asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14202, doi:10.1029/2004JD004755. Raes, F., T. Bates, F. McGovern, and M. Van Liedekerke, 2000: The 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2): general overview and main results. Tellus, 52B, 111–125. Ramachandran, S., V. Ramaswamy, G.L. Stenchikov, and A. Robock, 2000: Radiative impact of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption: Lower stratospheric response. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D19), 24409–24429. Ramanathan, V., 1981: The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in the CO2 climate problem. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 918–930. Ramanathan, V., P.J. Crutzen, J.T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, 2001a: Atmosphere: aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, 294, 2119–2124. Ramanathan, V., et al., 2001b: Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), 28371–28398. Ramankutty, N., and J.A. Foley, 1999: Estimating historical changes in global land cover: croplands from 1700 to 1992. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 997–1027. Ramaswamy, V., S. Ramachandran, G. Stenchikov, and A. Robock, 2006a: A model study of the effect of Pinatubo volcanic aerosols on the stratospheric temperatures. In: Frontiers of Climate Modeling [Kiehl, J.T., and V. Ramanathan (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 152–178. Ramaswamy, V., et al., 2001: Radiative forcing of climate change. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 349– 416. Ramaswamy, V., et al., 2006b: Anthropogenic and natural infl uences in the evolution of lower stratospheric cooling. Science, 311, 1138–1141. Randall, C.E., R.M. Bevilacqua, J.D. Lumpe, and K.W. Hoppel, 2001: Validation of POAM III aerosols: Comparison to SAGE II and HALOE. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27525–27536. Randles, C.A., L.M. Russell, and V. Ramaswamy, 2004: Hygroscopic and optical properties of organic sea salt aerosol and consequences for climate forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16108, doi:10.1029/2004GL020628. Rasch, P.J., and J.E. Kristjánsson, 1998. A comparison of the CCM3 model climate using diagnosed and predicted condensate parametrizations. J. Clim., 11, 1587–1614. Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux, and J.W. Waters, 1993: Microwave limb sounder measurements of stratospheric SO2 from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(12), 1299–1302. Reddy, M.S., and O. Boucher, 2004: A study of the global cycle of carbonaceous aerosols in the LMDZT general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14202, doi:10.1029/2003JD004048. Reddy, M.S., O. Boucher, Y. Balanski, and M. Schulz, 2005a: Aerosol optical depths and direct radiative perturbations by species and source type. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021743. Reddy, M.S., et al., 2005b: Estimates of global multicomponent aerosol optical depth and direct radiative perturbation in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S16, doi:10.1029/2004JD004757. Reid, J.S., et al., 1999: Use of the Angstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in Brazil. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D22), 27473–27490. Reid, J.S., et al., 2003: Analysis of measurements of Saharan dust by airborne and ground-based remote sensing methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). J. Geophys. Res., 108(D19), 8586, doi:10.1029/2002JD002493. Reimann, S., et al., 2005: Low methyl chloroform emissions inferred from long-term atmospheric measurements. Nature, 433, 506–508, doi:10.1038/nature03220. Remer, L.A., and Y.J. Kaufman, 2006: Aerosol direct radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere over cloud free oceans derived from four years of MODIS data. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 237–253. Remer, L.A., et al., 2002: Validation of MODIS aerosol retrieval over ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(12), doi:10.1029/2001GL013204. Remer, L.A., et al., 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947–973. Richards, J.F, 1990: Land transformation. In: The Earth as Transformed by Human Action [Turner, B.L. II, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 163–178. Richter, A., et al., 2005: Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space. Nature, 437, 129–132. Rigozo, N.R., E. Echer, L.E.A. Vieira, and D.J.R. Nordemann, 2001: Reconstruction of Wolf sunspot numbers on the basis of spectral characteristics and estimates of associated radio fl ux and solar wind parameters for the last millennium. Sol. Phys., 203, 179–191. Rind, D., J. Perlwitz, and P. Lonergan, 2005: AO/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective infl uences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D12107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005103. Rissler, J., et al., 2004: Physical properties of the sub-micrometer aerosol over the Amazon rain forest during the wet-to-dry season transition – Comparison of modeled and measured CCN concentrations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2119–2143. Roberts, D.L., and A. Jones, 2004: Climate sensitivity to black carbon aerosol from fossil fuel combustion. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16202, doi:10.1029/2004JD004676. Robles-Gonzalez, C., J.P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, 2000: Mean aerosol optical depth over Europe in August 1997 derived from ATSR-2 data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(7), 955–959. Robson, J.I., et al., 2006: Revised IR spectrum, radiative effi ciency and global warming potential of nitrogen trifl uoride. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L10817, doi:10.1029/2006GL026210. Rockmann, T., J. Grooss, and R. Muller, 2004: The impact of anthropogenic chlorine emissions, stratospheric ozone change and chemical feedbacks on stratospheric water. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 693–699. Rosenfeld, D., and G. Feingold, 2003: Explanation of discrepancies among satellite observations of the aerosol indirect effects. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(14), 1776, doi:10.1029/2003GL017684.Rosenfeld, D., R. Lahav, A. Khain, and M. Pinsky, 2002: The role of sea spray in cleansing air pollution over the ocean via cloud processes. Science, 297, 1667–1670. Ross, K.E., et al., 2003: Spatial and seasonal variations in CCN distribution and the aerosol-CCN relationship over southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8481, doi:10.1029/2002JD002384. Rotstayn, L.D., 1997: A physically based scheme for the treatment of stratiform clouds and precipitation in large-scale models. I: Description and evaluation of the microphysical processes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 1227–1282. Rotstayn, L.D., and J.E. Penner, 2001: Indirect aerosol forcing, quasi forcing, and climate response. J. Clim., 14, 2960–2975. Rotstayn, L.D., and Y. Liu, 2003: Sensitivity of the fi rst indirect aerosol effect to an increase of the cloud droplet spectral dispersion with droplet number concentration. J. Clim., 16, 3476–3481. Rotstayn, L.D., B.F. Ryan, and J. Katzfey, 2000: A scheme for calculation of the liquid fraction in mixed-phase clouds in large scale models. Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 1070–1088. Rottman, G., 2005: The SORCE Mission. Solar Phys., 230, 7–25. Rozanov, E.V., et al., 2002: Climate/chemistry effect of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption simulated by the UIUC stratosphere/troposphere GCM with interactive photochemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4594, doi:10.1029/2001JD000974. Rozanov, E.V., et al., 2004: Atmospheric response to the observed increase of solar UV radiation from solar minimum to solar maximum simulated by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign climate-chemistry model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01110, doi:10.1029/2003JD003796. Russell, P.B., and J. Heintzenberg, 2000: An overview of the ACE-2 clear sky column closure experiment (CLEARCOLUMN). Tellus, 52B, 463– 483, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00013.x. Russell, P.B., P.V. Hobbs, and L.L. Stowe, 1999: Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States East Coast haze plume: An overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). J. Geophys. Res., 104(D2), 2213–2222. Rypdal, K., et al., 2005: Tropospheric ozone and aerosols in climate agreements: scientifi c and political challenges. Environ. Sci. Policy, 8, 29–43. Salby, M., and P. Callaghan, 2004: Evidence of the solar cycle in the general circulation of the stratosphere. J. Clim., 17, 34–46. Santer, B.D., et al., 2004: Identifi cation of anthropogenic climate change using a second-generation reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005075. Sato, M., J.E. Hansen, M.P. McCormick, and J.B. Pollack, 1993: Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850-1990. J. Geophys. Res., 98(D12), 22987–22994. Sato, M., et al., 2003: Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 100, 6319–6324. Sausen, R., and U. Schumann, 2000: Estimates of the climate response to aircraft CO2 and NO(x) emissions scenarios. Clim. Change, 44, 27–58. Sausen, R., K. Gierens, M. Ponater, and U. Schumann, 1998: A diagnostic study of the global distribution of contrails part I: Present day climate. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 61, 127–141. Sausen, R., et al., 2005: Aviation radiative forcing in 2000: An update on IPCC (1999). Meteorol. Z., 14, 1–7. Schaaf, C.B., et al., 2002: First operational BRDF, albedo nadir refl ectance products from MODIS. Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 135–148. Schaap, M., et al., 2004: Secondary inorganic aerosol simulations for Europe with special attention to nitrate. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 857– 874. Schatten, K.H., and J.A. Orosz, 1990: Solar constant secular changes. Sol. Phys., 125, 179–184. Schmidt, G.A., et al., 2005: Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: Comparison to in situ, satellite and reanalysis data. J. Clim., 19, 153–192. Schnaiter, M., et al., 2003: UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of soot and soot-containing aerosols. J. Aerosol Sci., 34(10), 1421–1444. Schoeberl, M., A. Douglass, Z. Zhu, and S. Pawson, 2003: A comparison of the lower stratospheric age spectra derived from a general circulation model and two data assimilation systems. J. Geophys. Res., 108, L4113, doi:10.1029/2002JD002652. Scholes, M., and M.O. Andreae, 2000: Biogenic and pyrogenic emissions from Africa and their impact on the global atmosphere. Ambio, 29, 23–29. Schulz, M., S. Kinne, C. Textor, and S. Guibert, 2004: AeroCom Aerosol Model Intercomparison. http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/. Schulz, M., et al., 2006: Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 5095–5136. Schumann, U., 2005: Formation, properties, and climatic effects of contrails. Comptes Rendus Physique, 6, 549–565. Schuster, G.L., O. Dubovik, B.N. Holben, and E.E. Clothiaux, 2005: Inferring black carbon content and specifi c absorption from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol retrievals. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S17, doi:10.1029/2004JD004548. Schwartz, S.E., and M.O. Andreae, 1996: Uncertainty in climate change caused by aerosols. Science, 272, 1121–1122. Schwartz, S.E., D.W. Harshvardhan, and C.M. Benkovitz, 2002: Infl uence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 1784–1789. Sekiguchi, M., et al., 2003: A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite datasets of aerosol and cloud parameters. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D22), 4699, doi:10.1029/2002JD003359. Sellers, P.J., et al., 1996: Comparison of radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric CO2 on climate. Science, 271, 1402–1406. Shantz, N.C., W.R. Leaitch, and P. Caffrey, 2003: Effect of organics of low solubility on the growth rate of cloud droplets. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), doi:10.1029/2002JD002540. Sherwood, S., 2002: A microphysical connection among biomass burning, cumulus clouds, and stratospheric moisture. Science, 295, 1272–1275. Shi, G.Y., et al., 2005: Sensitivity experiments on the effects of optical properties of dust aerosols on their radiative forcing under clear sky condition. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 83A, 333–346. Shindell, D.T., 2001: Climate and ozone response to increased stratospheric water vapor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1551–1554. Shindell, D.T., and G. Faluvegi, 2002: An exploration of ozone changes and their radiative forcing prior to the chlorofl uorocarbon era. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 363–374. Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, and N. Bell, 2003a: Preindustrial-to-present day radiative forcing by tropospheric ozone from improved simulations with the GISS chemistry-climate GCM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1675– 1702. Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and M. Mann, 2003b: Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era. J. Clim., 16, 4094–4107. Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, M. Mann, and G. Faluvegi, 2004: Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004151. Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G. Schmidt, 2005: An emissions- based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021900. Shine, K.P., 2005: Comment on ‘Contrails, cirrus, trends, and climate’. J. Clim., 18, 2781–2782. Shine, K.P., J. Cook, E.J. Highwood, and M.M. Joshi, 2003: An alternative to radiative forcing for estimating the relative importance of climate change mechanisms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (20), 2047, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018141. Shine, K.P., T.K. Berntsen, J.S. Fuglestvedt, and R. Sausen, 2005a: Scientifi c issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 15768–15773. Shine, K.P., J.S. Fuglestvedt, K. Hailemariam, and N. Stuber, 2005b: Alternatives to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases. Clim. Change, 68, 281–302. Shine, K.P, et al., 2005c: Perfl uorodecalin: global warming potential and fi rst detection in the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ., 39, 1759–1763. Simmonds, P.G., R. Derwent, A. Manning, and G. Spain, 2004: Signifi cant growth in surface ozone at Mace Head, Ireland ,1987-2003. Atmos. Environ., 38, 4769–4778. Simpson, I.J., D.R. Blake, F.S. Rowland, and T.Y. Chen, 2002: Implications of the recent fl uctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), doi:10.1029/2001GL014521. Smith, C.A., J.D. Haigh, and R. Toumi, 2001: Radiative forcing due to trends in stratospheric water vapour. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(1), 179– 182. Smith, R.N.B., 1990: A scheme for predicting layer clouds and their water content in a general circulation model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 116, 435–460. Smith, S.J., and T.M.L. Wigley, 2000: Global warming potentials: 2. Accuracy. Clim. Change, 44, 459–469. Smith, S.J., E. Conception, R. Andres, and J. Lurz, 2004: Historical Sulphur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results. Research Report No. PNNL-14537, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park, MD, 16 pp. Smith, W.L. Jr., et al., 2005: EOS terra aerosol and radiative fl ux validation: an overview of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 62(4), 903–918, doi:10.1175/JAS3398.1. Sofi a, S., and L.H. Li, 2001: Solar variability and climate. J. Geophys. Res., 106(A7), 12969–12974. Sokolov, A., 2006: Does model sensitivity to changes in CO2 provide a measure of sensitivity to the forcing of different nature. J. Clim., 19, 3294–3306. Solanki, S.K., and M. Fligge, 1999: A reconstruction of total solar irradiance since 1700. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(16), 2465–2468. Solanki, S.K., et al., 2004: Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years. Nature, 431, 1084–1087. Solomon, S., et al., 1996: The role of aerosol variations in anthropogenic ozone depletion at northern midlatitudes. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D3), 6713–6727. Solomon, S., et al., 2005: On the distribution and variability of ozone in the tropical upper troposphere: Implications for tropical deep convection and chemical-dynamical coupling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23813, doi:10.1029/2005GL024323. Souffl et, V., D. Tanre, A. Royer, and N.T. O’Neill, 1997: Remote sensing of aerosols over boreal forest and lake water from AVHRR data. Remote Sens. Environ., 60, 22–34. Spahni, R., et al., 2005: Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science, 310, 1317–1321. Spinhirne, J.D., et al., 2005: Cloud and aerosol measurements from GLAS: overview and initial results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L22S03, doi:10.1029/2005GL023507. Spruit, H., 2000: Theory of solar irradiance variations. Space Sci. Rev., 94, 113–126. Steinbrecht, W., H. Claude, and P. Winkler, 2004a: Enhanced upper stratospheric ozone: sign of recovery or solar cycle effect? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D020308, doi:10.1029/2003JD004284. Steinbrecht, W., H. Claude, and P. Winkler, 2004b: Reply to comment by D. M. Cunnold et al. on “Enhanced upper stratospheric ozone: Sign of recovery or solar cycle effect?”. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004948. Stenchikov, G.L., et al., 1998: Radioactive forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D12), 13837–13857. Stenchikov, G.L., et al., 2002: Arctic Oscillation response to the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption: effects of volcanic aerosols and ozone depletion. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4803, doi:10.1029/2002JD002090. Stenchikov, G., et al., 2004: Arctic Oscillation response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the SKYHI GCM with a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03112, doi:10.1029/2003JD003699. Stenchikov, G., et al., 2006: Arctic Oscillation response to volcanic eruptions in the IPCC AR4 climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006286. Stern, D.I., 2005: Global sulfur emissions from 1850 to 2000. Chemosphere, 58, 163–175. Stevenson, D.S., et al., 2004: Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D17307, doi:10.1029/2004JD004759. Stier, P., et al., 2005: The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1125–1156. Stier, P., et al., 2006a: Impact of nonabsorbing anthropogenic aerosols on clear-sky atmospheric absorption. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18201, doi:10.1029/2006JD007147. Stier, P., et al., 2006b: Emission-induced nonlinearities in the global aerosol system: results from the ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. J. Clim., 19, 3845–3862. Stordal, F., et al., 2005: Is there a trend in cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffi c? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2155–2162. Stothers, R., 2001a: Major optical depth perturbations to the stratosphere from volcanic eruptions: Stellar extinction period, 1961-1978. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D3), 2993–3003. Stothers, R., 2001b: A chronology of annual mean radii of stratospheric aerosol from volcanic eruptions during the twentieth century as derived from ground-based spectral extinction measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 32043–32049. Stott P.A., G.S. Jones, and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2003: Do models underestimate the solar contribution to recent climate change? J. Clim., 16, 4079– 4093. Streets, D.G., et al., 2001: Black carbon emissions in China. Atmos. Environ., 35, 4281–4296. Streets, D.G., et al., 2003: An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093. Strugnell, N.C., W. Lucht, and C. Schaaf, 2001: A global albedo data set derived from AVHRR data for use in climate simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(1), 191–194. Stubenrauch, C.J., and U. Schumann, 2005: Impact of air traffi c on cirrus coverage. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14813, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL022707. Stuber, N., M. Ponater, and R. Sausen, 2001a: Is the climate sensitivity to ozone perturbations enhanced by stratospheric water vapor feedback? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(15), 2887–2890. Stuber, N., R. Sausen, and M. Ponater, 2001b: Stratosphere adjusted radiative forcing calculations in a comprehensive climate model. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 68, 125–135. Stuber, N., M. Ponater, and R. Sausen, 2005: Why radiative forcing might fail as a predictor of climate change. Clim. Dyn., 24, 497–510. Sun, B., and R.S. Bradley, 2002: Solar infl uences on cosmic rays and cloud formation: a re-assessment. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), doi:10.1029/ 2001JD000560. Sundqvist, H., 1978: A parametrization scheme for non-convective condensation including prediction of cloud water content. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 104, 677–690. Sundqvist, H., E. Berge, and J.E. Kristjánsson, 1989: Condensation and cloud parametrization studies with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 1641–1657. Suzuki, K., et al., 2004: A study of the aerosol effect on a cloud fi eld with simultaneous use of GCM modeling and satellite observation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 179–194. Svalgaard, L., E.W. Cliver, and P. Le Sager, 2004: IHV: A new long-term geomagnetic index. Adv. Space Res., 34, 436–439. Swap, R.J., et al., 2002: The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): overview of the dry season fi eld campaign. S. Afr. J. Sci., 98, 125–130. Swap, R.J., et al., 2003: Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8465, doi:10.1029/2003JD003747. Tabazadeh, A., et al., 2002: Arctic “ozone hole” in cold volcanic stratosphere. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 2609–2612. Takemura, T., T. Nakajima, T. Nozawa, and K. Aoki, 2001: Simulation of future aerosol distribution, radiative forcing, and long-range transport in East Asia. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 2, 79, 1139–1155. Takemura, T., et al., 2000: Global three-dimensional simulation of aerosol optical thickness distribution of various origins. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 17853–17874. Takemura, T., et al., 2005: Simulation of climate response to aerosol direct and indirect effects with aerosol transport-radiation model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D02202, doi:10.1029/2004JD005029. Tang, I.N., 1997: Thermodynamic and optical properties of mixed-salt aerosols of atmospheric importance. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D2), 1883– 1893. Tang, I.N., K.H. Fung, D.G. Imre, and H.R. Munkelwitz, 1995: Phase transformation and metastability of hygroscopic microparticles. Aerosol Sci. Tech., 23, 443. Tanré, D., Y.J. Kaufman, M. Herman, and S. Mattoo, 1997: Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16971–16988. Tanré, D., et al., 2003: Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: overview of the SaHAran Dust Experiment (SHADE). J. Geophys. Res., 108(D18), doi:10.1029/2002JD003273. Tarasick, D.W., et al., 2005: Changes in the vertical distribution of ozone over Canada from ozonesondes: 1980-2001. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D02304, doi:10.1029/2004JD004643. Tegen, I., and I. Fung, 1995: Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modifi cation. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18707–18726. Tegen, I., A.A. Lacis, and I. Fung, 1996: The infl uence on climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils. Nature, 380, 419–421. Tegen, I., M. Werner, S.P. Harrison, and K.E. Kohfeld, 2004: Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05105, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL019216. Tegen, I., M. Werner, S.P. Harrison, and K.E. Kohfeld, 2005: Reply to comment by N. M. Mahowald et al. on “Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission”. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021560. Tett, S.F.B., et al., 2002: Estimation of natural and anthropogenic contributions to twentieth century temperature change. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), 4306, doi:10.1029/2000JD000028. Textor, C., et al., 2006: AeroCom: The status quo of global aerosol modelling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1777–1813. Tie, X.X., G.P. Brasseur, B. Breiglib, and C. Granier, 1994: Two dimensional simulation of Pinatubo aerosol and its effect on stratospheric chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20545–20562. Thomason, L., and T. Peter, 2006: Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP): Report on the Assessment Kick-Off Workshop, Paris, France, 4-6 November 2001. SPARC Report No. 4, WCRP-124, WMO/TD No. 1295, http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/~sparc/News18/18_ Thomason.html. Thompson, A.M., et al., 2001: Tropical tropospheric ozone and biomass burning. Science, 291, 2128–2132. Thompson, T.M., et al., 2004: Halocarbons and other atmospheric trace species. In: Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Summary Report No. 27 [Schnell, R.C., A.-M. Buggle, and R.M. Rosson (eds.)]. NOAA CMDL, Boulder, CO, pp. 115–135. Timmreck, C., and M. Schulz, 2004: Signifi cant dust simulation differences in nudged and climatological operation mode of the AGCM ECHAM. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D13202, doi:10.1029/2003JD004381. Timmreck, C., H.-F. Graf, and B. Steil, 2003: Aerosol chemistry interactions after the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption. In: Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere [Robock, A., and C. Oppenheimer (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 227–236. Tol, R.S.J., 2002: Estimates of the damage costs of climate change, Part II. Dynamic estimates. Environ. Resour. Econ., 21, 135–160. Torres, O., et al., 2002: A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS: Observations and comparison to AERONET measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 398–413. Travis, D.J., A.M. Carleton, and R.G. Lauritsen, 2002: Contrails reduce daily temperature range. Nature, 418, 601–602. Travis, D.J., A.M. Carleton, and R.G. Lauritsen, 2004: Regional variations in U.S. diurnal temperature range for the 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrail infl uence on climate. J. Clim., 17, 1123–1134. Tripoli, G.J., and W.R. Cotton, 1980: A numerical investigation of several factors contributing to the observed variable intensity of deep convection over South Florida. J. Appl. Meteorol., 19, 1037–1063. Twohy, C.H., et al., 2005: Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: droplet number, size, liquid water path, and radiative impact. J. Geophys.Res., 110, D08203, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD005116. Twomey, S.A., 1977: The infl uence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149–1152. Udelhofen, P.M., and R.D. Cess, 2001: Cloud cover variations over the United States: An infl uence of cosmic rays or solar variability? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(13), 2617–2620. Usoskin, I.G., et al., 2004: Latitudinal dependence of low cloud amount on cosmic ray induced ionization. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16109, doi:10.1029/2004GL019507. Van Aardenne, J.A., et al., 2001: A 1 x 1 degree resolution dataset of historical anthropogenic trace gas emissions for the period 1890-1990. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 909–928. van der Werf, et al., 2004: Continental-scale partitioning of fi re emissions during the 1997 to 2001 El Nino/La Nina period. Science, 303, 73–76. Van Dorland, R., F.J. Dentener, and J. Lelieveld, 1997: Radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone and sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D23), 28079–28100. van Loon, H., and D.J. Shea, 2000: The global 11-year solar signal in July- August. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(18), 2965–2968. Veefkind, J.P., G. de Leeuw, and P.A. Durkee, 1998: Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3135–3138. Velders, et al., 2005: Chemical and radiative effects of halocarbons and their replacement compounds. In: Special Report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofl uorocarbons and Perfl uorocarbons [Metz, B., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 133–180. Vestreng, V., M. Adams, and J. Goodwin, 2004: Inventory Review 2004: Emission Data Reported to CLRTAP and the NEC Directive. EMEP/ EEA Joint Review Report, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway, 120 pp. von Hoyningen-Huene, W., M. Freitag, and J.B. Burrows, 2003: Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land surfaces from top-of- atmosphere radiance. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 4260, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD002018. Walter, B.P., M. Heimann, and E. Matthews, 2001a: Modeling modern methane emissions from natural wetlands 2. Interannual variations 1982-1993. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 34207–34220. Walter, B.P., M. Heimann, and E. Matthews, 2001b: Modeling modern methane emissions from natural wetlands 1. Model description and results. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 34189–34206. Wang, C., 2004: A modeling study on the climate impacts of black carbon aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03106, doi:10.1029/2003JD004084. Wang, H.J., et al., 2002: Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D23), 4691, doi:10.1029/2002JD002418. Wang, M.H., K.D. Knobelspiesse, and C.R. McClain, 2005: Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD004950. Wang, W.-C., M.P. Dudek, and X.-Z. Liang, 1992: Inadequacy of effective CO2 as a proxy in assessing the regional climate change due to other radiatively active gases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1375–1378. Wang, W.-C., M.P. Dudek, X.-Z. Liang, and J.T. Kiehl, 1991: Inadequacy of effective CO2 as a proxy in simulating the greenhouse effect of other radiatively active gases. Nature, 350, 573–577. Wang, Y.M., J.L. Lean, and N.R. Sheeley, 2005: Modeling the sun’s magnetic fi eld and irradiance since 1713. Astrophys. J., 625, 522–538. Warner, J., and S.A. Twomey, 1967: The production and cloud nuclei by cane fi res and the effect on cloud droplet concentration. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 704–706. Warwick, N.J., et al., 2002: The impact of meteorology on the interannual growth rate of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(26), doi:10.1029/2002/GL015282. Weatherhead, E.C., and S. B. Andersen, 2006: The search for signs of recovery of the ozone layer. Nature, 441, 39–45. Welton, E.J., J.R. Campbell, J.D. Spinhirne, and V.S. Scott, 2001: Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micro-pulse lidar systems. In: Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring [Singh, U.N., T. Itabe, and N. Sugimoto (eds.)]. SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 151–158. Wennberg, P.O., S. Peacock, J.T. Randerson, and R. Bleck, 2004: Recent changes in the air-sea gas exchange of methyl chloroform. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16112, doi:10.1029/2004GL020476. Westerling, A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam, 2006: Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfi re activity. Science, 313, 940–943. White, W.B., M.D. Dettinger, and D.R. Cayan, 2003: Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), doi:10.1029/2002JC001396. Wild, O., M.J. Prather, and H. Akimoto, 2001: Indirect long-term global radiative cooling from NOx emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(9), 1719–1722. Williams, K.D., C.A. Senior, and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2001a: Transient climate change in the Hadley Centre models: the role of physical processes. J. Clim., 14, 2659–2674. Williams, K.D., et al., 2001b: The response of the climate system to the indirect effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Clim. Dyn., 17, 846– 856. Willson, R.C., and A.V. Mordvinov, 2003: Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21-23. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 3–6. Wilson, D.R., and S.P. Ballard, 1999: A microphysically based precipitation scheme for the UK Meteorological Offi ce Unifi ed Model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 1607–1636. Wilson, M.F., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1985: A global archive of land cover and soils data for use in general-circulation climate models. J. Climatol., 5, 119–143. WMO, 1986: Atmospheric Ozone 1985. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report No.16, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, Volume 3. WMO, 2003: Scientifi c Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report No. 47, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 498 pp. Wong, J., and Z. Li, 2002: Retrieval of optical depth for heavy smoke aerosol plumes: uncertainties and sensitivities to the optical properties. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 250–261. Wong, S., et al., 2004: A global climate-chemistry model study of present- day tropospheric chemistry and radiative forcing from changes in tropospheric O 3 since the preindustrial period. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11309, doi:10.1029/2003JD003998. Woods, T.N., et al., 1996: Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D6), 9541–9569. Xiong, J.Q., et al., 1998: Infl uence of organic fi lms on the hygroscopicity of ultrafi ne sulfuric acid aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 3536–3541. Xue, H., and G. Feingold, 2006: large eddy simulations of trade-wind cumuli: investigation of aerosol indirect effects. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1605–1622. Yang, F., and M. Schlesinger, 2001: Identifi cation and separation of Mount Pinatubo and El Nino-Southern Oscillation land surface temperature anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 14757–14770. Yang, F., and M. Schlesinger, 2002: On the surface and atmospheric temperature changes following the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruption: a GCM study. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D8), doi:10.1029/2001JD000373. Yokouchi, et al., 2005: Estimates of ratios of anthropogenic halocarbon emissions from Japan based on aircraft monitoring over Sagami Bay, Japan. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D06301, doi:10.1029/2004JD005320. Yoshioka, M., N. Mahowald, J.L. Dufresne, and C. Luo, 2005: Simulation of absorbing aerosol indices for African dust. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18S17, doi:10.1029/2004JD005276. Yu, H., et al., 2003: Annual cycle of global distributions of aerosol optical depth from integration of MODIS retrievals and GOCART model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), 4128, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002717. Yu, H., et al., 2006: A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 613– 666. Yvon-Lewis, S.A., and J.H. Butler, 2002: Effect of oceanic uptake on atmospheric lifetimes of selected trace gases. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 4414, doi:10.1029/2001JD001267. Zender, C.S., 2004: Quantifying mineral dust mass budgets: terminology, constraints, and current estimates. Eos, 85, 509–512. Zerefos, C.S., et al., 2003: Evidence of impact of aviation on cirrus cloud formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1633–1644. Zhang, J., and S. Christopher, 2003: Longwave radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols estimated from MODIS, MISR and CERES observations on Terra. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(23), doi:10.1029/2003GL018479. Zhang, J., S.A. Christopher, L.A. Remer, and Y.J. Kaufman, 2005: Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over cloud-free oceans from Terra: 2. Seasonal and global distributions. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S24, doi:10.1029/2004JD005009. Zhang, J.P., Z. Yang, D.J. Wang, and X.B. Zhang, 2002: Climate change and causes in the Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan China. J. Arid Environ., 51, 153–162. Zhao, M., A. Pitman, and T.N. Chase, 2001: The impacts of land cover change on the atmospheric circulation. Clim. Dyn., 17, 467–477. Zhao, T.X.P., I. Laszlo, P. Minnis, and L. Remer, 2005: Comparison and analysis of two aerosol retrievals over the ocean in the terra/clouds and the earth’s radiant energy system: moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer single scanner footprint data: 1. Global evaluation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21208, doi:10.1029/2005JD005851. Zhou, L.M., et al., 2001: Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D17), 20069–20083. Zhou, M., et al., 2005: A normalized description of the direct effect of key aerosol types on solar radiation as estimated from aerosol robotic network aerosols and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer albedos. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D19202, doi:10.1029/2005JD005909.

Comments

Can Inhofe be investigated as well? Is stupidity a crime? How about willful misinformation?

I recommend watching the movie "Idiocracy". It portrays a future in which the dull and ignorant have "outbred" the intelligent, and things have predictably gone to hell. When I see Palin, Monckton, or Inhofe speak (and be applauded), I figure we can't be too far away from that reality. Sad, really. We could have been a much better species.

[x]
climate change, IPCC

Human interference with the climate system is occurring, and climate change poses risks for human and natural systems.” IPCC WGII AR5

Every five years or so thousands of scientists from around the world release a major report on the...

read more