- Ph.D., Applied Mathematics, Harvard University (1964).
- S.M., Applied Mathematics, Harvard University (1961).
- A.B. (mcl), Physics, Harvard University (1960).
Richard S. Lindzen is the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as well as the Distinguished Senior Fellow in the Center for the Study of Science at the Cato Institute. 
Professor Lindzen's academic interests lie within the topics of “climate, planetary waves, monsoon meteorology, planetary atmospheres, and hydrodynamic instability.”
Lindzen has published work with the conservative think-tank, the Cato Institute, a think tank that has received $125,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998. In his 1995 article, “The Heat Is On,” Ross Gelbspan notes that Lindzen charged oil and coal organizations $2,500 per day for his consulting services.
Stance on Climate Change
Richard Lindzen's scientific stance on climate change and anthropogenic global warming is that the earth goes through natural periods of global warming and cooling.
According to Dr. Lindzen, the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are problematic and limited because they are based on computer models which Lindzen says are “generally recognized as experimental tools whose relation to the real world is questionable.” 
Furthermore, he feels that the issue of global warming is completely political, and that policy makers and the media not only manipulate science but also force scientists to produce work that supports a particular agenda. 
“Demonization of CO2 is irrational at best and even modest warming is mostly beneficial. […] When someone says this is the warmest temperature on record. What are they talking about? It's just nonsense. This is a very tiny change period.” 
“To say that climate change will be catastrophic hides a cascade of value-laden assumptions that do not emerge from empirical science.” 
“…there is no substantive basis for predictions of sizeable global warming due to observed increases in minor greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.” 
“Future generations will wonder in bemused amazement that the early 21st century’s developed world went into hysterical panic over a globally averaged temperature increase of a few tenths of a degree, and, on the basis of gross exaggerations of highly uncertain computer projections combined into implausible chains of inference, proceeded to contemplate a roll-back of the industrial age.” 
June 13, 2016
Prominent individuals appearing in the documents include climate deniers Willie Soon, Roy Spencer and Richard Berman. The long list of organizations also includes groups such as Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council, CFACT, Institute for Energy Research, State Policy Network, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and dozens more. 
“These groups collectively are the heart and soul of climate denial,” said Kert Davies, founder of the Climate Investigation Center, who has spent 20 years tracking funding for climate denial. “It’s the broadest list I have seen of one company funding so many nodes in the denial machine.”
The company’s filings reveal funding for a range of organisations which have fought Barack Obama’s plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and denied the very existence of climate change. […]
Among Peabody’s beneficiaries, the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has insisted – wrongly – that carbon emissions are not a threat but “the elixir of life” while the American Legislative Exchange Council is trying to overturn Environmental Protection Agency rules cutting emissions from power plants. Meanwhile, Americans for Prosperity campaigns against carbon pricing. The Oklahoma chapter was on the list. […]
“The breadth of the groups with financial ties to Peabody is extraordinary. Thinktanks, litigation groups, climate scientists, political organisations, dozens of organisations blocking action on climate all receiving funding from the coal industry,” said Nick Surgey, director of research for the Center for Media and Democracy.
“We expected to see some denial money, but it looks like Peabody is the treasury for a very substantial part of the climate denial movement.”
Notable organizations also listed as creditors in the bankruptcy documents include:
- 60 Plus Association
- The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
- American Energy Alliance
- Alliance For Energy And Economic Growth
- American Energy Alliance
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- Americans For Prosperity Oklahoma
- Atlas Economic Research Foundation
- Berman And Company, Inc
- Consumer Energy Alliance
- Center For Clean Air Policy
- Center for Energy and Economic Development
- Center For The Study Of Carbon Dioxide And Global Change
- Coalition for Responsible Regulation
- Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow
- Council on State Taxation
- DCI Group AZ, LLC
- Ducks Unlimited
- Energy & Environment Legal Institute
- Edison Electric Institute
- Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity
- Free Market Environmental Law Clinic
- Frontiers Of Freedom Institute
- George C. Marshall Institute
- Hill Knowlton Strategies
- Hill Knowlton, Inc
- Hudson Institute
- Hunton & Williams
- Independence Institute
- Institute For Energy Research
- Institute for Liberty
- National Association of Manufacturers
- National Black Chamber of Commerce
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- National Mining Association
- National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
- National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
- NextGen Energy Council
- PACE (May refer to Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy)
- Science & Public Policy Institute
- Sidley Austin LLP
- State Policy Network
- Texas Conservative Coalition Research Institute
- Texas Public Policy Foundation
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce
- Western Business Roundtable
May 18, 2016
Richard Lindzen was a signatory to a full page color advertisement in The New York Times titled “Abuse of Power” (PDF) sponsored by The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI). The ad serves as an open letter from 43 signatories including organizations and individuals in response to New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, U.S. Virgin Islands Attorney General Claude Walker, and the coalition of Attourneys General investigating groups denying man-made climate change. , 
“Attempts to intimidate CEI and our allies and silence our policy research are unconstitutional,” said CEI president Kent Lassman. “The First Amendment protects us and everyone has a duty to respect it – even state attorneys general. CEI will continue to fight for all Americans to support the causes in which they believe.” 
The Competitive Enterprise Institute received a subpoena from AG Walker on April 7, 2016. On April 20, CEI filed an objection to the subpoena calling it “offensive,” “un-American,” and “unlawful,” and are contending that AG Walker is “violating CEI’s First Amendment rights.” 
The “freedom of speech” argument was echoed by ExxonMobil's legal team, as well as numerous other conservative groups including the Pacific Legal Foundation, and Heritage Foundation and the recently-formed Free Speech in Science Project, a group created by the same lawyers who defended the Competitive Enterprise Institute in the past. 
The CEI letter lists the following signatories:
- Kent Lassman — President & CEO, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- C. Boyden Gray — Former White House Counsel
- Andrew C. McCarthy — Former Chief Assistant United States Attorney, Southern District of New York
- Michael B. Mukasey — U.S. Attorney General, 2007-2009; U.S. District Judge, 1988-2006
- Ross McKitrick — Professor of Economics, University of Guelph
- Ronald D. Rotunda — Distinguished Professor of Jurisprudence, Chapman University
- Richard S. Lindzen — Professor Emeritus of Atmospheric Sciences, MIT
- William Happer — Emeritus Professor of Physics, Princeton University
- Jim DeMint — President, The Heritage Foundation
- James H. Amos, Jr. — President & CEO, National Center for Policy Analysis
- John A. Baden — Chairman, Foundation for Research on Economics & the Environment
- Lisa B. Nelson — CEO, American Legislative Exchange Council
- Paul Driessen — Author & Energy Policy Analyst
- Thomas J. Pyle — President, Institute for Energy Research
- Steven J. Allen — Vice President & Chief Investigative Officer, Capital Research Center
- David Ridenour — President, National Center for Public Policy Research
- Steven J. Milloy — Publisher, JunkScience.com
- Brooke Rollins — President & CEO, Texas Public Policy Foundation
- Paul Gessing — President, Rio Grande Foundation
- Ron Arnold — Researcher & Author
- William Perry Pendley — President, Mountain States Legal Foundation
- Adam Brandon — President & CEO, FreedomWorks
- Hank Campbell — President, American Council on Science and Health
- Craig Rucker — Executive Director, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Tom McCabe — CEO, Freedom Foundation
- Richard B. Belzer — Economist
- Heather R. Higgins — President & CEO, Independent Women's Voice
- Joseph G. Lehman — President, Mackinac Center for Public Policy
- Sabrina Schaeffer — Executive Director, Independent Women's Forum
- Joseph Bast — President, The Heartland Institute
- John C. Eastman — Founding Director, The Claremont Institute’s Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence
- Robert Alt — President & CEO, The Buckeye Institute
- Michael Pack — President & CEO, The Claremont Institute
- Josh Blackman — Assistant Professor, South Texas College of Law
- Lynn Taylor — President, Tertium Quids
- David Rothbard — President, Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow
- Tracie Sharp — President & CEO, State Policy Network
- Kenneth Haapala — President, Science and Environmental Policy Project
- Tim Phillips — President, Americans for Prosperity
- Myron Ebell — Director of the Center for Energy & Environment, Competitive Enterprise Institute
- George Landrith — President, Frontiers of Freedom
- John Tillman — CEO, Illinois Policy Institute
- Craig D. Idso — Chairman, Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
March 29, 2016
Richard Lindzen was a featured speaker at a conference titled “The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 Is Good for the Earth” hosted by the CO2 Coalition and The New Criterion in New York City. 
According to the event description, “Members of the CO2 Coalition and many other experts argue that carbon dioxide enrichment of the atmosphere provides manifold benefits for humanity. And observed surface warmings are much smaller than predicted by climate models. Economic models that fail to include the benefits of CO2 and the serious exaggerations of climate models and are being used to advocate “cures” that are much worse than the non-existent disease.” Video of Lindzen's talk below. 
April 18, 2016
Richard Lindzen offered a presentation entitled “Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say,” where he claims that there is “much agreement” between climate change deniers and scientists who believe in human-caused climate change. 
The video was hosted by PragerU, which also offers a presentation by Alex Epstein on why fossil fuels are “the greenest Energy,” and a variety of other videos from prominent climate change deniers including Bjorn Lomborg and Patrick Moore. 
According to their website, PragerU's mission is to “spread what we call 'Americanism' through the power of the Internet. Our five-minute videos are conservative sound bites that clarify profoundly significant and uniquely American concepts for more than 100 million people each year.” They focus on “Judeo-Christian” values including “freedom of speech, a free press, free markets and a strong military to protect and project those values.” 
Video of Lindzen's presentation below:
I’m an atmospheric physicist. I’ve published more than 200 scientific papers. For 30 years I taught at MIT, during which time the climate has changed remarkably little. But the cry of “global warming” has grown ever more shrill. In fact, it seems that the less the climate changes, the louder the voices of the climate alarmists get. So, let’s clear the air and create a more accurate picture of where we really stand on the issue of global warming or, as it is now called—“climate change.”
There are basically three groups of people dealing with this issue. Groups one and two are scientists. Group three consists mostly, at its core, of politicians, environmentalists and the media.
Group one is associated with the scientific part of the United Nation’s International Panel on Climate Change or IPCC (Working Group 1). These are scientists who mostly believe that recent climate change is primarily due to man’s burning of fossil fuels—oil, coal and natural gas. This releases C02, carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere and, they believe, this might eventually dangerously heat the planet.
Group two is made up of scientists who don’t see this as an especially serious problem. This is the group I belong to. We’re usually referred to as skeptics.
We note that there are many reasons why the climate changes—the sun, clouds, oceans, the orbital variations of the earth, as well as a myriad of other inputs. None of these is fully understood, and there is no evidence that CO2 emissions are the dominant factor.
But actually there is much agreement between both groups of scientists. The following are such points of agreement:
1) The climate is always changing.
2) CO2 is a greenhouse gas without which life on earth is not possible, but adding it to the atmosphere should lead to some warming.
3) Atmospheric levels of CO2 have been increasing since the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century.
4) Over this period (the past two centuries), the global mean temperature has increased slightly and erratically by about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit or one degree Celsius; but only since the 1960’s have man’s greenhouse emissions been sufficient to play a role.
5) Given the complexity of climate, no confident prediction about future global mean temperature or its impact can be made. The IPCC acknowledged in its own 2007 report that “The long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible.”
November 19, 2015
“Demonization of CO2 is irrational at best and even modest warming is mostly beneficial,” Lindzen said. “The most important thing to keep in mind is – when you ask 'is it warming, is it cooling', etc. — is that we are talking about something tiny (temperature changes) and that is the crucial point.” 
Richard Lindzen is a contributor to the book Climate Change: The Facts published by the Institute of Public Affairs and featuring “22 essays on the science, politics and economics of the climate change debate.” The Institute of Public Affairs, while not revealing most of its funders, is known to have received funding from mining magnate Gina Rinehart and at least one major tobacco company. 
The book includes essays and articles from a range of climate change skeptics, with contributors including the following:
- Alan Moran
- Andrew Bolt
- Anthony Watts
- Bernard Lewin
- Christopher Essex
- Donna Laframboise
- Garth W. Paltridge
- Ian Plimer
- J. Scott Armstrong
- James Delingpole
- Jennifer Marohasy
- Joanne Nova
- John Abbot
- Kesten Green
- Mark Steyn
- Nigel Lawson
- Patrick J. Michaels
- Richard S. Lindzen
- Robert M. Carter
- Ross McKitrick
- Rupert Darwall
- Stewart Franks
- Willie Soon
According to Editor Alan Moran in a post at Catallaxy Files blog on Climate Change: the facts 2014, Richard Lindzen “demonstrates that the climate is relatively insensitive to increases in greenhouse gases, and that in any event a warmer world would have a similar variability in weather to that we have always seen.” 
September 18, 2014
Richard Lindzen writes a blog post for the Cato Institute titled, “Reflections on Rapid Response to Unjustified Climate Alarm,” detailing Cato's Center for the Study of Science's “rapid response center,” which aims to “identify and correct inappropriate and generally bizarre claims on behalf of climate alarm.”  Lindzen writes that “climate alarm belongs to a class of issues characterized by a claim for which there is no evidence, that nonetheless appeals strongly to one of more interests of prejudices. Once the issue is adopted, evidence becomes irrelevant. Instead, the believer sees what he believes.”  Lindzen notes, “there is an important role for such a center … to reassure those who realize that this [climate alarm] is a fishy issue, that there remain scientists who are still concerned with the integrity of science … This is a problem that is truly worth of Cato's attention.” 
Lindzen publishes an article in the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons entitled, “Science in the Public Square: Global Climate Alarmism and Historical Precendents.” 
January 27, 2012
Other signatories include Claude Allègre, J. Scott Armstrong, Jan Breslow, William Happer, William Kininmonth, James McGrath, Rodney Nichols, Burt Rutan, Harrison H. Schmitt, Nir Shaviv, Edward David, Michael Kelly, Henk Tennekes, and Antonino Zichichi.
Skeptical Science summarized how the list of signatories “only includes four scientists who have actually published climate research in peer-reviewed journals, and only two who have published climate research in the past three decades.” Also, almost half have received funding from oil companies and big industry. 
March 8 - 10, 2009
Sponsors of the 2009 conference have collectively received over $47 million from energy companies and right-wing foundations.
March 8, 2007
Appeared in The Great Global Warming Swindle documentary.
The Great Global Warming Swindle also starred fellow skeptics Tim Ball, Roy Spencer, Fred Singer, Pat Michaels, Nir Shaviv, Nigel Lawson, Ian Clark, Piers Corbyn, Philip Stott, Paul Reiter, Patrick Moore, Patrick Michaels, Syun-Ichi Akasofu, Fred Singer, Paul Driessen, and others.
December 13, 2007
Lindzen was a signatory to a 2007 open letter to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon that declared “It is not possible to stop climate change, a natural phenomenon that has affected humanity through the ages.” 
The letter further explains how carbon dioxide is a “non-polluting gas that is essential to plant photosynthesis” and why the IPCC's reports are “inadequate as justification” for implementing climate change policy.
Lindzen was also a signatory to the 2005 Leipzig Declaration which describes the Kyoto Protocol as “dangerously simplistic, quite ineffective, and economically destructive to jobs and standards-of-living.” 
The Declaration further states that “there does not exist today a general scientific consensus about the importance of greenhouse warming from rising levels of carbon dioxide.”
The Declaration, available in two versions, was penned by prominent climate-change denier Fred Singer's Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP). SEPP has received at least $20,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.
Lindzen made the claim that the climate would be significantly colder in 20 years.
When James Annan, a British climate researcher, approached Lindzen about solidifying a bet on the claim, Lindzen would only agree if Annan would accept a 50-to-1 payout (Annan did not agree to those terms).
November 16, 2004
The letter concludes that that past past warming in the arctic cannot be attributed to greenhouse gas concentrations:
“Arctic climate has and will continue to exhibit intricate patterns not reliably reproduced by global climate simulations, thus underscoring their scientific incompleteness and need for advances in Arctic climate science, in measurements, theory and models.”
May 2, 2001
Testified before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on the subject of climate change.
Lindzen concluded that “If we view Kyoto as an insurance policy, it is a policy where the
premium appears to exceed the potential damages, and where the coverage extends to only a small fraction of the potential damages.” 
The National Academy of Science has stated that it is not connected in any way with the Oregon Petition.
According to Ross Gelbspan's 1995 article The Heat Is On, Lindzen was one of three expert witnesses that were hired to testify on behalf of Western Fuels Association, a “$400 million consortium: of coal suppliers and coal-powered utilities.” 
The hearings were to determine the environmental cost of burning coal by state power plants.
May 24-25, 1993
Lindzen took part in a conference titled “Scientific Integrity in the Public Policy Process,” that was organized by SEPP and George Mason University's International Institute.
The conference invited numerous journalists to a “special media session,” where the organizers went through the conference's overall themes which were described as follows:
“The conference discussion underscored two themes: (1) the need for stringent, open, external peer-review of the scientific basis of federal environmental actions, and (2) distortions in the teaching of environmental issues, i.e. 'Who peer-reviews what is being taught under the guise of environmental education?'” 
Lindzen spoke on a panel that accused any scientists supporting the conclusion of AGW (Anthropogenic [man-made] Global Warming) of “distorting the issues,” “distorting logic,” “using science to advance a political agenda,” and even “intimidating other scientists through coercion.”
Lindzen is a signatory to the Heidelberg Appeal. The Heidelberg Appeal was created by the International Centre for Scientific Ecology, a public relations front group, during the 1992 UN World Summit. Eventually the document was endorsed by 4,000 scientists who declared that “we are worried at the dawn of the twenty-first century, at the emergence of an irrational ideology [man-made global warming] which is opposed to scientific and industrial progress and impedes economic and social development.”
The document also says that “many essential human activities are carried out by manipulating hazardous substances, and that progress and development have always involved increasing control over hostile forces.”
Dr. Fred Singer and the International Centre for Scientific Ecology consented to the tobacco giant Philip Morris' use of the Heidelberg Appeal to draw support to its European branch of The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC)—TASSC Europe.
TASSC was Philip Morris's front group initiated to question the science that showed the devastating effects of smoking on the human body.
- Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy — Past Member, Science, Health, and Economic Advisory Council.  The Annapolis center appears to be now defunct.
- The Heartland Institute — “Expert.” 
- The Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) — Member, “Academic Advisory Council.” 
- George C. Marshall Institute — Roundtable Speaker. 
- Tech Central Station — Contributor. 
According to his curriculum vitae and Google Scholar, Dr. Lindzen has published numerous articles in the field of climatology, with many appearing in peer- reviewed journals.
“Curriculum Vitae: Richard Siegmund Lindzen” (PDF), MIT, February 10, 2010.
Lesley Curwen. “Science climate conflict warms up,” BBC News, April 26, 2007.
Richard S. Lindzen. “Global Warming: The Origin and Nature of the Alleged Scientific Consensus,” Regulation (CATO Institute), Vol. 15, No. 2 (Spring 1992).
Richard S. Lindzen. “Don't Believe the Hype,” Wall Street Journal (Opinion), July 2, 2006. Archived July 5, 2006.
Craig D. Rose. “Sempra forums set to address global warming,” U-T San Diego, February 14, 2007.
“Is Global Warming a Myth?”, Scientific American, April 8, 2009.
“Open Letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations,” December 13, 2007. Reprinted by the Science and Public Policy Institute.
“SIGNATORIES TO THE LEIPZIG DECLARATION,” Science and Environmental Policy Project. Archived September 28, 2006.
David Adam. “Climate change sceptics bet $10,000 on cooler world,” The Guardian, August 19, 2005.
“Climate Experts Respond to Arctic Climate Impact Assessment” (Press Release), Frontier Center For Public Policy, November 20, 2004.
“MIT Climatologist Richard S. Lindzen To Address Cooler Heads Coalition,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, September 30, 2002.
“Testimony of Richard S. Lindzen before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on 2 May 2001” (PDF). Accessed January, 2012, from eaps.mit.edu.
Ross Gelbspan. “THE HEAT IS ON: The warming of the world's climate sparks a blaze of denial,” Harper's Magazine, December 1995. Republished at dieoff.org.
“Richard S. Lindzen,” The Independent Institute. Accessed January, 2012.
“Heartland Experts: Mr. Richard Lindzen,” The Heartland Institute. Accessed January, 2012.
“Academic Advisory Council,” The Global Warming Policy Foundation. Accessed January, 2012.
“Dr. Richard Lindzen,” George C. Marshall Institute. Accessed January, 2012.
“Richard S. Lindzen,” Tech Central Station. Archived September 21, 2003.
“No Need to Panic About Global Warming,” The Wall Street Journal, January 27, 2012.
“The Latest Denialist Plea for Climate Change Inaction,” Skeptical Science, January 31, 2012.
“The Journal Hires Dentists To Do Heart Surgery,” Media Transparency, January 30, 2012.
“Institute of Public Affairs,” SourceWatch. Accessed May 27, 2015.
Alan Moran. “Climate Change: the facts 2014,” Catallaxy Files (blog), December 16, 2014.
“Richard S. Lindzen,” SourceWatch Profile.
“Science in the Public Square: Global Climate Alarmism and Historical Precendents,” Journal of American Physicans and Surgeons, Fall 2013.
“Richard Lindzen,” Cato Institute, Accessed May 5, 2014.
Richard Lindzen. “Reflections on Rapid Response to Unjustified Climate Alarm,” Cato Institute, September 18, 2014. Archived October 1, 2014.
“About,” Co2Coalition. Archived September 4, 2015.
Marc Morano. “Prominent Scientists Declare Climate Claims Ahead of UN Summit 'Irrational' – 'Based On Nonsense' – 'Leading us down a false path',” Climate Depot, November 19, 2015. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6dRDNqepY
Quote by Richard Lindzen in Chris Horner's book, “The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming and Environmentalism,” 2007 via Google Books.
“The Climate Surprise: Why CO2 is Good for the Earth,” CO2 Coalition, April 25, 2016. Archived May 7, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6hKp4uAL0
“CEI Runs “Abuse of Power” Ad In New York Times,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 18, 2016. Archived May 31, 2016.
“Abuse of Power: All Americans have the right to support causes they believe in” (PDF), Competitive Enterprise Institute. Archived .pdf on file at DeSmogBlog.
Steve Horn. “Exxon's Lawyer in Climate Science Probe Has History Helping Big Tobacco and NFL Defend Against Health Claims,” DeSmogBlog, May 10, 2016.
“Prager U,” Conservative Transparency. Search Performed May 31, 2016.
Nick Surgey. “Peabody Coal Bankruptcy Reveals Climate Denial Network Funding,” PRWatch, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPmXjc4W
“In re: Peabody Energy Corporation, et al. Debtors,” United States Bankruptcy Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, Case 16-42529, May 27, 2016. Retrieved from DocumentCloud.
Farron Cousins. “Court Documents Show Coal Giant Peabody Energy Funded Dozens Of Climate Denial Groups,” DeSmogBlog, June 13, 2016.
Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson. “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian, June 13, 2016. Archived June 20, 2016. WebCite URL: http://www.webcitation.org/6iPnEUG1o